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Chaldaic Kingdom, New

Chaldaic refers to Chaldea or more specifically the Chaldean language. This language was used by the people who resided in southern Mesopotamia within Babylon and it was also known as a form of Aramaic. Many people who resided within the Middle Eastern region spoke this language. This dialect had a universal appeal that was similar to how English is used in modern times. Different kingdoms and tribes used it as a primary form of communication even though they might have adjusted parts of the language to fit their particular methods of speech and culture. The Babylon Kingdom that emerged with the rule of Nebopolasser was sometimes referred to as the New Chaldaic Kingdom by some scholars and historians. This is because Neboolasser was the first king of the New Babylon Dynasty which began in the 6th century B.C. which is where this appears on the Biblical Timeline.

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New Chaldaic
Daniel

The Hebrews, Canaanites and the Phoenicians spoke Chaldaic and it was used in the Bible in the time of Daniel the prophet, Ezra the scribe and when Jesus was alive. Chaldaic is a Semitic language and it became the foundation of the Arabic and Hebrew dialects. The ancient Assyrians also spoke a version of this language that similar to Babylon’s and the Hebrews used it to write some of their text within the Talmud. Chaldaic was the official language of Babylon that was spoken by the Chaldean dynasty of Babylon rulers. This language was the official tongue of Babylon when they took Judah in captivity. The kingdom Babylon introduced the Chaldaic into the Mesopotamian and Middle Eastern regions once Babylon conquered many kingdoms and tribes that resided in these areas of the world. Chaldaic became the new official languages of these conquered regions and conquered peoples had to become familiar with this speech since the Babylonians governed their lives. Chaldaic had been in use for hundreds of years and it wasn’t until the time that the Persians conquered Babylon that it began to lose its preeminence. Shortly before the Kingdom of Judah fell the Assyrians had taunted the Judeans in Hebrew but the Judean officials who were present when this situation was taking place asked the Assyrian messengers to speak in their native language so the people wouldn’t hear what they had to say. This situation reinforces the fact that the Hebrew people were probably familiar with Chaldaic as much as they were with the Assyrian tongue. Before Chaldaic became a common language throughout the Middle East it was primarily used just by the Babylonians and probably by other tribes such as the Medes. The Chaldeans were also known as a race of sorcerers, astrologers and soothsayers. They had written many of their incantations, spells and prayers in Chaldaic. Since Babylon ruled the Middle East and the Mesopotamian region they used this language to influence people to worship their gods and to spread their power. Babylonian religious services were carried out in Chaldaic and the people also used this language for commerce.

new_chaldiac
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego

The Babylonians deported many groups of the people that they conquered back to Babylon. They also forced the upper-class sons and daughters of defeated nations to become educated in their language and customs. The prophet Daniel and his companions Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego were trained to serve in the royal court of Babylon. Daniel and his companions had to learn Chaldaic in order to serve as officials within Nebuchadnezzar’s royal court. They also had to know this language so that they could communicate with other officials within the empire. Daniel and his companions were required to use this language when communicating with the masses especially since Daniel was a high ranking governor for many years.

When the Persians finally conquered Babylon they still continued to use the Chaldaic language as the official dialect of the empire. They mixed it with their own speech to create a unique form of Aramaic that was similar but different to Chaldaic. Eventually, this language went out use as the primary tongue spoken in the Middle East region of the world but certain tribal groups speak a modern version of this Semetic language to this day.

Biblical References:

Daniel 1 Daniel, Shadrach, Meschach and Abednego were taken from Judah and made to learn the Babylonian (Chaldaic) language and customs.
Genesis 10 and 11 Nimrod establishes the Assyrian and Babylonian empires.
*All throughout the rest of the Bible God uses Babylon and Assyria to carry out his plans and he proclaims judgments against them. Key books include Genesis, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Nahum, Jonah and Revelation.

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Esdras Prophet and Book of the Apocrypha

Esdras was an important scribe and priest for the Jewish people during the time that they returned from exile. Esdras is the Greco-Latin version of the Hebrew name Ezra, and it is also a book of the Apocrypha which is found in some versions of Catholic and Orthodox Bibles. The scribe Ezra has a book in the Bible named after him. He appears in the Old Testament during the time Nehemiah was allowed to return to his homeland to restore the Temple of Solomon and to repair the city that is where he appears on the Bible Timeline. Esdras was in captivity before he returned to Jerusalem. King Cyrus of Persia gave different Jewish leaders the right to return to Jerusalem to start the rebuilding process.

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Esdras was important to this process because he was used to reminding the people of Israel about their relationship and destiny with God. The people were reminded by Esdras on a daily basis about how important it is for them to worship God and to live a life full of holiness since they were allowed to return from captivity. He gave the Israelites important information about the important expectations that God had for them once they returned home. Many Jews had forgotten about Moses’s laws or they didn’t regard them as important anymore. Esdras helped to change this condition because he was a scholar of the Laws of Moses. Even though he was in captivity, he was still able to learn about the important laws that Moses had left for the people.

There are two books titled Esdras within the Apocrypha and the Septuagint. Once again these books can be found in some Catholic or Orthodox versions of the Bible. Some Catholic versions of the Bible contain Esdras 3 and 4. There are two books of Esdras. 1 Esdras tells of Jewish exiles after leaving Persia under Cyrus and how they restored the temple, feasted in honor of their return. How they confronted their enemies who wanted to stop them from rebuilding and how they put away foreign wives and idolatry.

2 Esdras goes into detail about how the different steps that the Jews had to take in order purify the Jews from their marriage of non-Jews. An archangel named Urial is sent to the Jews to answer important questions about the fate of men and tells a story about a man who breaths fire on a crowd of evil men. 2 Esdras also explains how the Lord was against Israel, the end of the age, seven visions of judgments and retributions, prophecies of wars and calamities and rule of Messiah for 400 years.

Even though Esdras 1 and Esdras 2 have been accepted as sacred texts, many biblical scholars do not think that these two books are inspired. The information contained in these books contradicts sound biblical doctrine. The writings also appear to have been authored from a later period after these events happened. Esdras 1 and 2 were not regarded as standard Hebrew texts. These books were obtained after the rabbinical council in Jamina pieced together the Old Testament in 90 A.D. Since Esdras 1 and 2 were found at a date after the Old Testament was formed they were not considered inspired texts by Jews and the Protestant Branch of Christianity. However, there were some Protestant church leaders, such as Martin Luther, who placed Esdras 1 and 2 in their versions of the Bible.

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Lycurgian Constitution and Legislation

The Lycurgian constitution and legislation was considered to be the prime legacy of the Spartan leader, Lycurgus. He is placed on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History during the eighth century BC. His laws had defined the powerful militaristic political state we now envision Sparta to be during those times. What made Lycurgian rule unique to all other Greek states was its insistence on not keeping historical records and issuing any form of written law. Each case that needed resolution was handled on a case to case basis. Lycurgus and his somewhat democratic form of law were instrumental to Sparta’s rise to power.

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Lycurgus
Lycurgus

The Ruler

It is believed that Lycurgus lived and reigned sometime between 800 to 630 BC. What we know of Lycurgus today can largely be attributed to old historians like Plutarch and his peers considering that Lycurgus did away with any form of historical records. Plutarch is the main source for any semblance of historical study on Lycurgus. In a way, what Plutarch discusses is more of an anecdotal collection rather than a biography. Some believe that Lycurgus may not have actually existed and is symbolic for some ancient ruler who brought sweeping change to Sparta.

The Institution

Lycurgus started the change in the political and legislative landscape by distributing the king’s power unto an elder senate. At times, a general assembly of the people would be held wherein the public would decide the fate of a piece of legislation. However, the people could not make new laws but could only approve or reject what the Senate has made. This was one of the earliest forms of democracy. This is the basic backbone of the Lycurgian constitution and legislation. Of course, not every citizen, particularly those in the upper class, favored this new arrangement but Lycurgus, according to Plutarch, succeeded in quelling opposition to his rule.

Many of the approved pieces of legislation were somehow idiosyncratic even by today’s standards. One feature compelled citizens to eat in public mess halls, into small groups called “sysstia”. These groups was generally a mixture of citizens both rich and poor. When one member disliked what was being served, they could bring their own meal, provided that they also feed everyone else in the group. Under the constitution, all manner of trade using gold or silver was banned, and iron was the new currency. Any form of occupation deemed useless was also banned, which included prostitution. Adultery was also allowed if it was done in the pursuit of creating an ideal offspring. Having an ideal baby was such an important concept during the Lycurgian era that those infants deemed defective were reportedly cast out into a cliff. The examination of an infant, if he or she was fit to live, was done by the council.

After Lycurgus

Even after the reported disappearance of Lycurgus, believed to have sought out the Oracle of Delphi and never returned, Sparta continued following the constitutional structure he presented. It is believed that this very adherence to the form of governing was the reason for Sparta becoming a powerful militaristic state in the Greek region. Many surrounding states also favored Spartans to be dispute arbitrators given the structure they followed when it come to conflict resolution. The apparent success in this otherwise crude and primitive form of democracy had led many other states to consider adopting the principles of the Lycurgian constitution and legislation.

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Assyrian Power Increased Under Tiglath-Pileser

Tiglath-Pileser was a powerful monarch who resided on the throne during the Middle Assyrian Period. Tiglath-Pilesar I. was one of the most revered rulers at the time of the Assyrian empire. He conquered many Empires and kingdoms during his reign.  He is found on the Biblical Timeline Poster with World History during the 12th century BC. The Assyrian empire was once located near the northern Mesopotamian Sea in the region of modern-day Iraq. This kingdom was originally started by the Akkadians who resided in the city of Asur which eventually became known as the Assyria.

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Tiglath-Pilesar

When Ashur-rush-Ishi the I. had passed away Tiglath-Pilesar I. had taken over the kingdom. Once he gained power, he began to immediately mobilize his armies for conquest. He reorganized his chariots and infantry to make them more effective in battle. After the army was reorganized, he quickly moved them quickly against the remaining Hittite groups that lived north of the kingdom. Anatolia was his next area of conquest, and many of the people that lived in the northern areas outside of Assyria were defeated by him. Some kingdoms, such as Melid, yielded to his power and paid him tribute without going to war. He eventually turned his attention to the south and defeated the Arameans in Syria and headed further south to fight against many kingdoms that lied in that region. Israel happened to be one of them. When Tiglath-Pilesar I marched his forces against Israel a king named Pekah ruled the nation. Pekah had killed a former monarch named Pekiah to take his position as ruler. Pekah ruled Israel in the south and King Ahaz ruled the northern kingdom of Juday. Pekah had allied himself with Rezin of Aram to attack Judah.

Ahaz called on Tiglath-Pilesar I to come to his aid, and he did. They both defeated Pekah and Rezin. After defeating the Israelites, he deported many of them back to Assyria. Tiglath-Pilesar eventually expanded his conquest all the way to coastal cities that lived near the Mesopotamian Sea. He never attacked the Phoenician coastal cities such as Tyre or Sidon. Instead, he took a trip within this great sea and this event is recorded in his inscriptions. Many years later when the Babylonians became a powerful threat, Tiglath-Pilesar tried to conquer them as well. Tiglath-Pilesar I. was also a city builder as well as a conqueror.

During his reign, he created many public works and established many temples that were dedicated to his gods that included their chief deities Nanna and Shamash. This Assyrian monarch also helped to developed public works and to maintain order within his territories that he ruled. Inscriptions about Tiglath make him out to be a mighty and exceptional king. He apparently had a magnetic personality and was a well-respected leader. Some ancient texts even claim that he had cultivated a spirit of fear among his people and conquered subjects. Many inscriptions about this king can be found on the walls of the palaces that he constructed during his reign. Tiglath-Pilesar ruled for about 40 years, and he died in 1076 B.C.

Biblical References to Tiglath-Pilesar

  • 2 Kings 16:7 Ahaz requests Tiglath-Pilesar’s help against the Israelites.
  • 2 Kings 16:7-9 Ahaz pays tribute to Tiglath-Pilesar I. The Israelis are deported back to Assyria after they are defeated by Tiglath.
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Jair a Judge In Israel

Jair the Gileadite was judged over Israel for twenty-two years. He is found on the Biblical Timeline around 1200 BC.   His rule over Israel was fairly a long one. The Scripture doesn’t state that Jair did anything wrong while he was in office. The unique quality of the life of Jair was the fact that he had 30 sons that had 30 cities. According to the book of Judges, the cities were named Havothjair. In the Bible Havothjair was a group of villages that consisted of at least 30 different units. They were previously owned by various Israeli rulers in the past starting with Jair, the son of Manasseh. Hezron was the father of Caleb, and he had a son named Segub who had 23 towns in Gilead. He eventually lost some of these territories to Geshur and Aram. These two men were descendants of Machir, the father of Gilead. Jair’s sons had come to control the various towns and settlements of Havothjair. Jair, the judge, was connected to the line of Machir through his father, Segub. His sons held had probably inherited one of the many different cities of Havothjair from him.

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Jair
Owning a donkey was a sign of wealth

Most people in ancient Israel did not ride donkeys or horses as a form of transportation. Owning a donkey or a horse in ancient Israel was the same as a person having a vehicle for personal transportation today. The fact that Jair’s sons had 30 donkeys was also an indication of his wealth and status. Since his sons held thirty cities, they apparently had servants and were men of means and status. Jair being their father must have been a well-respected city member that was chosen by the elders to become a judge. The history of Havothjair is usually ascribed to the various Israelites who ruled the area at the time of Manasseh. The name Jair also appears all throughout the Old Testament, and it was all connected to various events that happened in or near Havothjair during its time of importance. Jair was also used sometimes to describe Havothjair.

Biblical References to Jair

  • Judges 10:3 Jair the Gileadite becomes the next judge of Israel after Abimelech. He judged Israel for 22 years before he died
  •  Judges 10:4 He had 30 sons who rode on thirty donkeys and held 30 cities.
  •  Judges 10:5 Jair died and was buried in Camon.
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Tracing the Sons of Noah

son_of_noah
‘Noah dividing the world between his sons (a Russian picture from the 18th century).’

Find out about each of the 16 grandsons of Noah and the nations they populated.

Open The Bible Timeline Online for the years after the flood

Click on each of the 16 grandsons of Noah to learn about him and his descendants.

Each link takes you to complete information on the grandson, his nations, the Biblical references and additional online resources.

 

Here’s a synopsis of what you’ll find

1.  Sons of Ham

Cush is Ethiopia

Mizraim is Egypt

Phut is Lybia

Canaan or Palestine Israel and Palestine today

2.  Sons of Shem (the Semites)

Elam,Persia (Iran)

      Asshur, Assyria

     Arphaxad,Chaldeans, Hebrews and Arabians

     Lud, Lydia (western Turkey)

     Aram Syria

3.  Japheth:
Gomer:  Gauls who settled France, Spain, Wales, Armenia, northern Turkey

Magog: Goths, Finns, Sweden, Southern Russia

Madia:  Medes  India

Javan: Ionians of Greece

Tubal: Throughout Europe, Turkey and Siberia

Meshech: Muscovites, Armenians, Caucasians

Tiras:

China, Japan and the eastern countries:  by Kittim Grandson of Japheth.

However other Biblical scholars believe differently.  For example this article suggests the Chinese are descended from Shem.

Reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sons_of_Noah#mediaviewer/File:Noah_(Grigoriants%27_coll.).jpg

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Babel, Tower Of

Biblical Description: Following the Great Flood, a group of people of a particular speech and migrating from the east, arrived at the land of Shinar, where they decided to construct a capital with a tower “with its top reaching up the heavens”. According to the Amazing Biblical Timeline with World History, this occurred around 2200 BC

Other Structures Association. The Tower of Babel has frequently been connected with well-known structures, particularly the Etemenanki, a ziggurat devoted to Marduk by Nabopolassar (c. 610 BC). The Great Ziggurat of Babylon pedestal was square (not round), 91 meters (300 ft) in height, but destroyed by Alexander the Great before his bereavement in an effort to reconstruct it. A Sumerian tale with some comparable elements is preserved in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.

Biblical Etymology. “Tower of Babel” does not in fact show in the Bible; generally it only mentions, “the city and its tower” or just “the City.” According to the biblical etymology, the city obtained the name “Babel”, from the Hebrew remark “balal”, meaning to jumble.

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Tower_Of_Babel_ruins

The name Babylon is from the inhabitant Akkadian Bab-ilim, which means “Gate of the god,” abridges the spiritual reason of the great shrine towers (the ziggurats) of earliest Sumer (Biblical Shinar).In Genesis Babel is believed to have created a division of Nimrod’s realm. It is not directly stated in the Bible that he prepared the tower to be built, but Nimrod is frequently connected with its structure in other resources. Hebrew description of the name of the city as well as the tower, Babel, is attributed in the book of Genesis to the verb balal, which means to perplex or puzzle in Hebrew. Ruins of the city of Babylon are near Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq.

Tower_of_Babel_divide_continents
‘Some scholars believe that the destruction of the Tower of Babel marks the time in history when God divided the earth into separate continents that were during the time of Peleg.’

Views to Consider:
Analogy. People used “man-made” materials, instead of more durable “God-made” materials in building the tower. The people were building a monument to themselves, to call attention to their own abilities and achievements, instead of giving glory to God.

Bible & Geology. Some scholars believe that the destruction of the Tower of Babel marks the time in history when God divided the earth into separate continents that were during the time of Peleg.

Implications. We may be tempted to think we no longer need to trust and obey God. We may believe our learning, sophistication and technology are all we need to be self-sufficient and guarantee our security. The lesson of the Tower of Babel is that such self-sufficiency is a delusion. History has shown that many nations and their leaders have fallen into the trap of arrogance and self-sufficiency. Like Babel, those nations have eventually ended up in ruins.

Genesis 11:6. God realizes that when people are unified in purpose they can accomplish impossible deeds, both noble and dishonorable. This is why unity in the body of Christ is so important.

Timeline on-line →

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Was Noah’s Flood Universal or Local?

Other Flood Theories:

Aside from the Biblical account of the flood written by Moses in the book of Genesis, there are over two hundred and fifty stories or versions of the flood scattered all over the world. These flood versions are considered “myths” or “legends” about a great flood and how the world repopulated.

Even though there are details of the myths that has distinct differences, all have similar ideas and key points – the ultimate creator wants to cleanse the whole earth through a great flood; a family or a certain person is chosen to warn other people about the coming end and are commanded to build an ark; a pair of each creature was taken in the ark; every creature and everything not boarded in the ark died; that single family who boarded the ark was responsible of repopulating the whole world. All the flood legends point to one single truth that can be traced in the holy Bible.

Was the flood universal? Or did the flood happen in a small area where Noah and the rest of mankind resided? The Bible doesn’t explicitly say whether it was either universal or local.

If we look at the original Hebrew, we can translate it either as “the land was covered with water or, as in King James, “the earth was covered with water”. Here are the arguments from each side.

Yes the Flood Covered the Whole Planet Earth
1. The omnipotence of our Creator
– God promised never to send another flood like Noah’s Flood (Genesis 9:11, 15), but there have been many local floods, even regional floods, since Noah’s time.

2. God destroyed all mankind because of their corrupt doings.
– People who did not live in the vicinity were also affected by the flood. They would have escaped God’s judgment on sin.

3. Mankind scattered all over the earth but can still be traced in one genealogy.

4. Global world-destroying flood is described in Genesis 6:13 & 17.
– Also Peter based his prophecy that the existing planet will ‘melt with fervent heat’ (II Peter 3:10) and an entire new heavens and new earth will be recreated (3:13).
– Waters rise to 15 cubits (8 meters) above the mountains (Genesis 7:20)

5. The Design of the Ark
Noah had up to 120 years’ warning (Genesis 6:3), long enough to walk to the other side of the mountains and avoid the flood yet he made an ark.
– The Ark was big enough to hold all kinds of land vertebrate animals that have ever existed. Ark could have been much smaller if only Mesopotamian animals were aboard.

6. The Gathering of Animals
– Animals were sent to the Ark to escape death. There would have been other animals to reproduce that kind if these particular ones had died.
– Birds could simply have flown across to nearby mountain range yet they were sent on board.

7. Today’s Science
– Vast fossil graveyards are found on every continent and large amounts of coal deposits that would require the rapid covering of vast quantities of vegetation.
– Oceanic fossils are found upon mountain tops around the world.

Although many accept Noah’s Flood as factual, there are also others who disclaim this and try to prove the Biblical account refers to a local flood. Listed are the common key points used to prove the Flood was local:

No The Flood Did NOT Cover the Whole Earth but DID Destroy All Mankind

1. The Design of the Ark
– the design of the ark having only one window will not support proper
ventilation of the ark
– the size of the ark can’t carry all the animals by pairs
– wood is not a strong material for arks, not unless it is supported by metal
straps
– God commanded Noah to build an ark instead to just migrate away from flood
area. God gives obedient humans the privilege of participating in God’s plans. God had plans for Noah, for him and his sons to demonstrate their commitment

2. The Gathering of the Animals
– there are certain animals species that need special diets and need the correct
temperature to survive
– animals of every kind can’t be found in Noah’s area
– Some animals are indigenous only to the Mesopotamian area.
– Most birds (other than few migratory birds) have very localized territory. They
would have been killed in local flood, since they are not designed to fly long
distances and flying in heavy rain is not easy.
It would have taken hundreds of years longer to replace the fauna if
everything had been wiped out and had to migrate back in.

3. Today’s Science
– according to scientists, the rain of forty days would be impossible
– dryness of the earth is referring to the local land area and not the entire planet
earth (Genesis 8:14) else the entire earth became a desert after the flood.

4. Bible’s Other Creation Passages
– Psalm 104 is just one of several creation passages that indicate God prevented
seas from covering the entire earth.
– An integration of all flood and creation passages clearly indicates that the
Genesis flood was local in geographic extent.

5. English Translations
– Description of kol (“whole earth” or “all the earth”) erets (“all”) is modified by
the name of the land, indicating a local area from the context:
– Genesis 13: 9 (The “whole land” was only the land of Canaan)
– Genesis 41:57 (The people from the Americas did not go to Egypt)
– Exodus 34:10 (There would be no need to add “nor among any of the nations” if “all the earth” referred to the entire planet.)
– Judges 6:37 (“kol erets” could not refer to the entire earth, since it would not be possible for Gideon to check the entire earth)
– 2 Samuel 18:18 (No, battle did not take place over the entire earth.)
Term kol erets is nearly always used in the Old Testament to describe a local
area of land, instead of our entire planet.

6. Rise of Water Level
Hebrew word ma‛al, translated “higher” really means “upward.” Hence, the
flood was 15 cubits (20 feet) deep, in total, not 15 cubits above the mountains.
Hebrew word har really refers most often to hills rather than mountains.

7. God’s Promise
Genesis 9:11 & 15 reflects a promise not to exercise universal judgment by
means of a flood, “all flesh shall never again be cut off by water of the flood.”
The flood, although local in extent, was global in judgment, since all
humanity lived in the same locale.

Related Articles
Did it rain on the earth before the Great Flood?
How long is a cubit?
Can God Forget? Or Why the rainbow “reminds” God

Reference Sites:
http://creationwiki.org/Local_flood

http://creationwiki.org/Global_flood

http://apologeticspress.org/APContent.aspx?category=0&article=1222&topic=303

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-noahs-ark.html

http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/localflood.html

http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v12/i2/noah.asp

http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v21/i3/flood.asp

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Tubalcain

Tubalcain, the brother of Naamah, is the one of the sons of Lamech from his second wife, Zillah.

Tubalcain
Tubalcain in the forge

The Bible describes Tubalcain as “an instructer of every artificer of brass and iron”.

Chronologically, Tubalcain was mentioned in the Bible after Cain was banished from the land he was tilling. He is found between the creation and the great flood on the Bible Timeline Chart.

References Here:

 

 

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Jubal Player of Harp

Jubal, the brother of Jabal, is the second son of Lamech with Adah.

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Jubal_Player_of_Harp
The Harp

He is described in the Bible as “the father of all such as handle the harp and organ” (Genesis 4:21 KJV). It is believed that the Jubilee Trumpet was founded by Jubal since he was the inventor of musical instruments. The Biblical Timeline, assumes Jubal’s birth is between 4004 BC (Adam‘s creation) and the Great Flood.

References Here: