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How old was Ishmael when Abraham sent him away?

Hagar was given to Abram by his wife Sarai to have a child; as they were getting older, and Sarah had yet to conceive. Genesis 16:1 “Now Sarai Abram’s wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the Lord hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.”

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Hagar and Ishmael in the desert

Ishmael was then born by Hagar unto Abram. Genesis 16:15 “And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son’s name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.” Abram was 86 years old.

Ishmael was fourteen when Isaac was born by Sarai (now Sarah) – Abram (now Abraham) being 100 years old, Genesis 21:5.

It wasn’t until the feast of Isaac’s weaning that Sarah asked Abraham to send Hagar and Ismael away, Genesis 21: 9-10. Which he did the very next day, Genesis 14. Since there is no exact age known for the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael could have been between 17 and 19 years old when he was sent away with his mother.

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10 Bible Study Habits you need to stop doing immediately!

1. Starting without prayer. 
It is difficult to start out a scripture study session under the pressure of stress. Prayer can help relieve your tensions and clear your mind from current problems or distractions. Conducting your studies under the guidance of prayer can not only help you understand Biblical meaning, but may lead to scriptural answers to modern quandaries.
“Don’t pray when you feel like it. Have an appointment with the Lord and keep it. A man is powerful on his knees.”
~ Corrie ten Boom
2. Using today’s definitions for Biblical words. The Bible was originally written in different languages, namely Greek and Hebrew. The translation of some words into English may not have the exact meaning. If you run across a word or phrase that doesn’t quite make sense, consider doing some research on the Biblical translation to see if there is an alternate meaning. For example, the word jealous in today’s dictionary is  “feeling or showing envy of someone or their achievements and advantages.” As opposed to the Biblical translation from Greek and Hebrew as warmth or heat which can be linked to the word passionate. (Go Here for a more detailed explanation.)

3. Confusing the spiritual with the literal. Just as not being sure of the exact definition for certain words, trying to take every story from the Bible literally could lead you to an intellectual dead end. Christ was often using parables or stories to explain a concept.  These stories often included several meanings that would be entirely missed or misunderstood if the reader was taking them literally. Although this is an obvious concept with most avid Bible readers, it is important to keep it in mind during your studies to ensure you are not overlooking important lessons. Reminding yourself that there are several meanings behind each concept will help you get a greater view.

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4. Studying a subject without any idea of time frame. The Bible was not ordered chronologically and can be confusing when you are doing your reading from front to back. The letters of Paul are arranged from longest to shortest. That is why it can be hard to understand what he is saying. Using a reference for when those letters were written can help clarify their message. You can use this free bookmark to help.

5. Going Solo. While there is nothing wrong with reading your Bible on your own, conducting a regular scripture study is much easier when you have others involved. Maintaining a regular schedule is one of the most important aspects of Bible study. Being involved or creating your own study group in which you have responsibilities to will help keep you on task. The more regular the study group, the stronger the bond between study and friendship. Each person can lean on the other for clarification on Biblical concepts.

10 Bible Study Mistakes

6. Not knowing  the writer. Who is speaking and who are they speaking to? What is the goal of the writer and what circumstances were they under? With this in mind, it is much easier to understand the intent and meaning behind the writer’s words.

7. Researching Biblical stories with no idea of the historical background. Keep in mind that the writings of the Bible are based on reactions of and teachings to the people in real history. Many prophets were subject to the rulings of common historical leaders. Who were those leaders? Were they good or evil? What were their current circumstances? These factors played a major role in how those prophets were treated. Ask yourself these questions: What time period did am I reading about? What historical events were taking place? What historical events were about to happen? Where is this event? How does this affect the reactions of the people during this time? If you can answer any of those questions, your studies can become more clear. The Bible Timeline is a great tool to use for that purpose.

8. Overthinking. Going into too much depth over topics without reading the entire story can lead to confusion. “Verse overkill” makes it possible to miss the real meaning from looking at one puzzle piece instead of the entire puzzle.  Keep in mind that spending a lengthy amount of time on one subject can make it easy to forget the original purpose of the topic.

9. Giving grammar too much credit. Going back to the translation of the Bible, remember that each language is written differently. The English punctuation may not match the Greek and Hebrew versions. For an “un-grammar lesson” on the Bible go here.

10. Expecting an instant understanding. There are several depths and several meanings to the Bible. For many, each time they read the Bible, they learn something they didn’t notice before. If you come across a portion of the Bible that is overwhelming, consider moving on and going back to that topic later. You may find clarification in your studies as you progress. Do no give up because one section is hard to understand.

What helps you study the Bible? Comment below with your advice. 

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Was Abraham alive when Jacob and Leah were born?

Which one was not

Abraham who was first called Abram, remembered as the father of many nations, may have even known Shem who was still alive when he was born around 1996 BC.

Jacob was the son of Isaac and Rebekah. He was known for taking his brother Esau’s birthright. Later, he had a large family which consisted of twelve sons. These sons began the twelve tribes of Israel.

Leah was Jacob’s first wife by trickery. She was not as loved as Rachel, his second wife, but she did bare him many sons.

All three of these Bible characters preceded the time of Moses. But which of these characters was not around during 1829 BC?

Answer:

Abraham and Jacob were both alive during 1829 BC. By the time Leah was born, Abraham had passed away. Click here if you want to look at their timelines.

Use as a trivia quiz for your church or Christian school classes.
Click here to get the quiz

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Have the ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrah been found?

Have the ancient cities of Sodom and Gomorrah been found? Two Biblical archaeologists say yes but disagree as to where. Dr. Steven Collins provides a video below with his reasons why he believes this site is correct. Dr. Bryant G. Wood who is excavating a different site disagrees and provides another site in this excellent article.

Watch the video and see what you think. As Biblical Chronology enthusiasts we are excited by the excellent work being carried on today as the Bible regains the respect of archaeologists lost during the 1960’s.

By the way Todd Bolens blog gives the following reasons for disagreeing with Dr. Steven Collins

Tall el-Hammam does not match the occupational profile for Sodom given in the Bible.

Sodom, according to the Bible:

  • Intermediate Bronze (aka EB IV/MB I; 2300-2000 BC): occupied and destroyed
  • Middle Bronze (2000-1500 BC): not occupied
  • Late Bronze (1500-1200 BC): not occupied
  • Iron Age (1200-600 BC): not occupied

Tall el-Hammam, according to the excavations:

  • Intermediate Bronze (aka EB IV/MB I; 2300-2000 BC): occupied
  • Middle Bronze (2000-1500 BC): occupied [Sodom was not]
  • Late Bronze (1500-1200 BC): not occupied
  • Iron Age (1200-600 BC): occupied [Sodom was not]
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Miriam, the sister of Moses

The Biblical female name Miriam is of Hebrew origin and is considered to be an older version of the name Mary. It means “wished for child,” or perhaps even a quite different meaning, which is “bitter” or “rebellious.” There is also a very similar Egyptian name, based on the word myr, meaning “beloved” or mr meaning “love.”

By consulting our Biblical Timeline, we can determine that Miriam was born in 1576 B.C.

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Miriam was the daughter of Amram and Jochebed, and the older sister of Moses and Aaron, all of whom were Levites. We first learn of Miriam as she and her three-year-old brother, Aaron, are welcoming a new child into the family.Unfortunately for that time, the baby was a boy, and there is a decree that all Hebrew baby boys be killed. Miriam had godly parents who trusted the God of Israel, however, Egypt’s Pharoah hated her people. Miriam would have been only about 5 years old when this baby, Moses was born.

Her mother hid him for three months, but when she could no longer do so, she got a papyrus basket for him and coated it to make it waterproof. Then she placed Moses in it and hid it along the bank of the Nile river. Miriam then watched to see what would happen to him.

When the Pharaoh’s daughter went down to the river to bathe, she noticed the basket and sent a slave girl to get it. After she opened it and saw the baby, she fell in love with him. At that moment, Miriam bravely stepped forward and offered to find a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby for the princess, who had decided to keep the baby as her own. And so it was, that Moses’ own mother was paid to care for him until he could be weaned and then given over to the Princess to be raised as an Egyptian.

Just from this one incident, we can glean from Miriam’s life that she was already caring, competent, and certainly brave. It would have taken quite a bit of courage to be so forthright with the Pharaoh’s daughter. She must have also been very obedient, because although the Bible doesn’t tell us, it would seem as though her mother had left her to watch over Moses, and see what would become of him.

Then one day, perhaps Miriam received the news that Moses had killed an Egyptian, and had fled to the desert, in fear for his life. Our Bible timeline shows he would have been 40 years old by then, and it would be another 40 years until they would meet again.

During that long period of Moses’ absence, the Pharaoh, who wanted Moses killed, dies himself. The Hebrew children groaned in their slavery and cried out, and their cry for help went up to God, Who heard their afflictions and remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Therefore, God looked on His towards children who were still in bondage in Egypt and was troubled over them.

It was God’s perfect time to deliver the Israelites, and He knew who He was going to use to accomplish His will. It would be Moses, who had by now made a completely new life for himself in the land of Midian, with a wife, two sons, and a career of tending his father-in-law’s flocks.

Moses returns to Egypt, and with Aaron as his spokesman, they delivered God’s commands to Pharaoh. Miriam watched God confirm their message with the great miracles they performed.

At long last, the treasured night came when the Israelites were allowed to leave Egypt with the mourning cries of the Egyptians resounding in their ears. Every home with children was grieving the death of a firstborn.

Miriam was there when this immense number of people came to the seemingly impassable barrier of the Red Sea. Miriam was right there when they looked behind them and saw the chariots of the Pharaoh and all his armies chasing after them, since he had changed his mind about letting them leave, and was determined to take them back to Egypt or to kill them on the spot. She witnessed the miracle when God opened a path through the sea, allowing the children of Israel to walk across on dry land. Again, she was there on the other side when Pharaoh’s chariots and horses stepped in to follow along the same path, and the massive walls of water that had stood so secure for the Israelites dissolved and filled in that whole dry bed, and drowned the mightiest army of that time.

Miriam
“Miriam the prophetess”

The Israelites were free from Egypt’s brutal captivity, and Miriam had seen it all! It was a time for rejoicing, and a time for singing.  Exodus 15 records the first song in the Bible, which was from Moses, and that is not without significance. It is a song of praise from a redeemed people.

Here is Miriam’s response to what the LORD had accomplished:

And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.”  Exodus 15: 20&21

Miriam was a leader among the Hebrew women, and she was gifted musically. She took the place of leadership that the LORD gave her, and used it to direct the woman to praise the Lord. She was a godly influence in their lives.

Notice that Miriam was one of God’s special gifts to the people of Israel. In fact, the Bible tells us that in Micah 6:4:

“For I brought thee up out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed thee out of the house of servants; and I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.”

She was a gift from God, and that is why she was so influential, however, at some point about 2 years into their journey, things begin to change in Miriam’s heart. The protective sister, the prophetess, the woman’s worship leader, the woman who supported Moses, became his rival and critic.

Moses had the final word on everything, and Aaron was the high priest. She was a prophetess. However, the people of Israel were not being governed by a committee of three. Miriam wanted more power, more authority, and began to speak even against Moses with Aaron because of his Cushite wife.

She was actually being driven by pride, jealousy, and envy at this point and even began to criticize Moses’ wife, and then question that he was not the only one God spoke to.

The Lord finally disciplines Miriam with leprosy for a week. Perhaps this brought her great shame and humiliation, even long after the week had passed. She lived thirty-eight more years under Moses’ authority, and never questioned it again. In fact, the Bible never mentions her after that, until she is about 130 years old, and the children of Israel are on the border of the Promised Land for the second time. It is now the first month of the fortieth year of their travels, and she dies, never having entered into the Promised Land.

Important World Leaders and Events During This Time

  • Egypt is the undisputed world power during this time.
    • Egyptian bondage and oppression increase, especially towards the Hebrew people.
    • This period saw the beginning of the Hurrian conquests.
    • Hittite King Mursilis I fought the Hurrians on the upper Euphrates River.
    • The Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centers flourish despite disasters.
    • The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization.
    • Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age. He becomes the first of several Kings of Athens whose life account is considered part of Greek mythology.
    • Cecrops I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 50 years. Having survived his own son, he is succeeded by Cranaus.
    • Egypt started to conquer Nubia and the Levant.
    • The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this period.
    • Settlers from Crete, Greece move to Miletus, Turkey.
    • There is evidence of the Mayan  civilization developing in Belize.
    • The Phoenicians develop an alphabet.
    • King Cheng Tang of Shang of China, the first ruler of Shang Dynasty, ruled China for 29 years beginning in 1600 B.C.
    • The Edomites lived south of the Dead Sea and blocked the passage of the Israelites to travel through their territory on their way north.
    • The rise of Assyrian power begins to be established.
    • The Kassites rose to political power in Babylon.
    • The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt.
    • In Greece, there was a group of people known as “The Pelasgi,” who lived in the region of the Aegean Sea before the coming of the Greeks.
    • The historical, recognizable beginnings of Persia took place in this era.
    • The ancient Chinese art of astronomy is recorded.
    • China is recognized as implementing the first old-age pension plans.
    • Lyrical poetry begins among the ancient Greeks, usually accompanied by a lyre or other stringed instrument.

     

    Main Bible Characters

    • Aaron, the younger brother of Miriam.
    • Moses, the youngest brother of Miriam.
    • Jochebed and Amram, the parents of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses.
    • Thermuthis, the Egyptian princess, who adopted Moses.

Main Bible References

  • Exodus Chapters 2 & 15
  • Numbers Chapters 12 & 20
  • Micah 6:4
References:
Picture By Anselm Feuerbachhttp://www.bildindex.de, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3245209

 

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Exodus, Moses Leads the

After 40 years of Moses living a rather quiet shepherd’s life in the desert, God hears the cries of His people under their Egyptian bondage. By consulting the Bible Timeline, we can ascertain that this would have been the year 1451 B.C., making Moses 80 years old, when God calls him to active duty. The Bible tells us that God responds to the Israelites cries and their sufferings under the Egyptian rule and decides to deliver them out of their captivity because of the covenant that He had previously made with their ancestors, – Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

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God initially makes contact with Moses through a burning bush:

And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.

exodus_moses
The burning bush.

God then begins to speak directly to Moses. He tells Moses that He has heard the cries of His people in Egypt and that He is calling upon Moses to be the one who will go there and free the Israelites from their bondage under the God explains that Moses was to lead the Israelites out of slavery and into a land flowing with milk and honey.” Moses hesitated…he knew he was not up to the task. God tells Moses when they ask the name of their God, to answer that His name is:

“I AM THAT I AM”

God continues by telling Moses to explain to His people that He is the God of their ancestors – Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and that He is going to deliver His people and bring them into a Promised Land, a land flowing with milk and honey.

After receiving all of the divine instructions from God, Moses still questions the Lord about all of this. He proceeds to explain to the Lord that he is slow of speech and slow of tongue. God then responds back saying to him:

“And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man’s mouth? Or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? Have not I the LORD?”

After God makes this authoritative statement to Moses, Moses continues to question God on choosing him. By this point, the Bible says that the anger of the Lord was roused against Moses. However, realizing Moses’ lack of self-confidence in himself, God then determines to have Moses take his brother Aaron with him. God says that Aaron can speak well and for Moses to convey God’s message to Aaron and that God will be with the both of them and will teach them both what to say and what to do.

God tells Moses that Aaron will be the spokesman to the people, that he will act as Moses’ mouth and that Moses shall be to Aaron “as God.” Bible timelines show that Aaron would have been 83 years old at this time.

When Moses and Aaron first approach the Pharaoh, they tell him that he is to let their people go so they can go into the wilderness to hold a feast with their God. The Pharaoh completely refuses this first request, so God does His first miracle in front of the Pharaoh and his court.

Aaron takes the rod of Moses, throws it to the ground, and it becomes a serpent. However, Pharaoh’s magicians threw their rods down, and they also became serpents. God then goes on to prove whose power was greater. God caused the rod that Aaron had thrown down that had turned into a serpent to consume all of the other rods that had turned into serpents from the Pharaoh’s magicians.

After seeing this display of God’s power, the Pharaoh’s heart hardens, and he refuses to let the Israelites go. This begins the 10 powerful plagues that God sets in motion against the Pharaoh in order to break his spirit so he will let the Israelites go from their bondage.

Here are the 10 specific plagues that God used to strike Egypt with. Please notice that some of these plagues will be the same ones that God will release once again during the 7-year Tribulation – just before Jesus returns for His second coming.The Ten Plagues Of Egypt

  • Water Turned Into Blood
  • Frogs
  • Lice
  • Flies
  • Pestilence on the Livestock
  • Boils
  • Hail
  • Locusts
  • Darkness
  • Death of All the Firstborn

The tenth plague finally breaks the Pharaoh’s will, causing him, in his own mourning, to relent and allow the Israelites to leave. Through consulting the Bible and Biblical timeline, we can see the Israelites had been kept under Egyptian bondage for 430 years, or since 1881 B.C.

The Israelites prepared to leave rapidly, however, God had one more massive miracle for them to witness before their Exodus could really begin!

This next miracle by God is perhaps the most extraordinary and magnificent in all of the Scripture. The children of Israel have now left Egypt. The Pharaoh, after allowing them to leave, changes his mind and decides to chase them with all of his army to try to get them back, or at the very least, kill them. When the Israelites realize this, they start murmuring to Moses.

They come to the Red Sea, with seemingly nowhere else to go. If they attempt to cross it, they will surely drown. If they try to move backward, the Egyptian army that is quickly closing in on them will catch them. Only God Himself can save them now.

Moses then steps forward in this desperate situation and declares to the Israelites:

“And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you today: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever. The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.”

God then speaks to Moses:

“But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.”

God parts the Red Sea, allowing the Israelites to cross over on dry land, and even more than that, when they had all crossed over, God then tells Moses to “stretch out your hand over the sea, that the waters may come back upon the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen.”

Moses then proceeds to stretch out his hand over the sea and then the sea returns to its full depth while the Egyptians were fleeing into it. The Bible says that the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea! The waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen and all of the army of the Pharaoh, and not one of them was left standing!

After the Israelites had crossed over and seen this supernatural event occur right before their very eyes, they then believed in Moses and the Lord.

Before God decides to take the children of Israel into the Promised Land, He first tests them by keeping them out in the wilderness for about two and half years. Please remember, it was only about a 3-day journey to get to the Promised Land of Canaan.

However, God apparently took them on the longer route to test their patience, their resolve and whether or not they would stay faithful and loyal to Him through this journey. During the time of testing in this wilderness experience, the first thing God wanted to see was whether His people would keep His laws and commandments. Therefore, God then presents Moses with the laws that He wants the Israelites to abide by, during a private and dramatic meeting up on Mt. Sinai.

During the second meeting with God, Moses was given specific instructions on building a tabernacle where God’s manifest presence could dwell with the Israelites out in the wilderness for the 40 years they were going to have to stay out there. It was during this second meeting that God gives Moses the 10 commandments written on a stone tablet.

He was given two tablets and the tablets had writings on both sides. All of the writing on the tablets was the handwriting of God Himself – literally engraved right on these stone tablets.

Near the beginning of the 40-year journey through the wilderness at about the two and half year mark, God brings the children of Israel up to the borders of the Promised Land – the land of Canaan. According to Biblical timelines, this would have been about 1449 B.C. Moses sent 12 spies into the land to investigate it out before decided to enter in.

Ten of the twelve spies come back with a negative report. They tell the rest of the Israelites that the people who dwell in this land are giants and that cities are high-walled and well protected.

Therefore, fears about larger men and strong walls kept the Israelites from having faith that God could give them victory. After hearing these negative reports, Caleb speaks out and says:

“And Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it.”

When God hears this lack of faith, He says that is enough. Here is the direct word from God Himself:

“Because all those men which have seen my glory, and my miracles, which I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have tempted me now these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice; Surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that provoked me see it: But my servant Caleb, because he had another spirit with him, and hath followed me fully, him will I bring into the land whereinto he went; and his seed shall possess it.”

God goes on to declare:

“Surely none of the men that came up out of Egypt, from twenty years old and upward, shall see the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob; because they have not wholly followed me.”

Joshua and Caleb were the faithful two spies, and they would be the ones to lead the younger generation under 20 years old into the Promised Land, and they were successful in conquering and overcoming all of the giants and strongholds that the older generation initially saw. The rest of the Israelites 20 years and older all died out in the wilderness over the next 40 years due to their lack of faith in the one true God.

Even Moses was forbidden from entering the Promised Land because he took the focus off of God and allowed the people to believe that he was performing a miracle by striking a rock to get water to come out of it. God said:

“And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, ‘Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them.’

Important World Leaders and Events During This Time

  • Egypt is the undisputed world power during this time.
  • Egyptian bondage and oppression increase, especially towards the Hebrew people.
  • This period saw the beginning of the Hurrian conquests.
  • Hittite King Mursilis I fought the Hurrians on the upper Euphrates River.
  • The Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centers flourish despite disasters.
  • The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization.
  • Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age. He becomes the first of several Kings of Athens whose life account is considered part of Greek mythology.
  • Cecrops I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 50 years. Having survived his own son, he is succeeded by Cranaus.
  • Egypt started to conquer Nubia and the Levant.
  • The element Mercury had been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this period.
  • Settlers from Crete, Greece move to Miletus, Turkey.
  • There is evidence of the Mayan civilization developing in Belize.
  • The Phoenicians develop an alphabet.
  • King Cheng Tang of Shang of China, the first ruler of Shang Dynasty, ruled China for 29 years beginning in 1600 B.C.
  • The Edomites lived south of the Dead Sea and blocked the passage of the Israelites to travel through their territory on their way north.
  • The rise of Assyrian power begins to be established.
  • The Kassites rose to political power in Babylon.
  • The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt.
  • In Greece, there was a group of people known as “The Pelasgi,” who lived in the region of the Aegean Sea before the coming of the Greeks.
  • The historical, recognizable beginnings of Persia took place in this era.
  • The ancient Chinese art of astronomy is recorded.
  • China is recognized as implementing the first old-age pension plans.
  • Lyrical poetry begins among the ancient Greeks, usually accompanied by a lyre or other stringed instrument.

Main Bible Characters

Numbers 20:12 Numbers 32:11Numbers 14:22-24Numbers 13:30Exodus 14:16Exodus 14:13-14Exodus 4:11KJVExodus 3:14 KJVExodus 3:2 KJV

  • Moses, the younger brother of Aaron, led the Israelite’s Exodus out of Egypt.
  • Aaron, the older brother of Moses, was the first high priest of Israel.
  • Joshua, son of Nun, was an attendant and helper to Moses during the Israelites’ 40-year trek through the Sinai wilderness. He was appointed by God to lead the Israelites after the death of Moses.
References:
Picture By Sébastien Bourdonwww.oceansbridge.com, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10586813
Main Bible ReferencesExodus 1:1-14, 1:15-2:10, 2:11-25, 3:1-4:31, 5:1-10:29, 11-12, 13:1-16, 13:17-15:21, 15:22-18:27, 19:1-20:21, 20:22-32:35, 24:9-18; 32:1-35, 33:1-34:35Numbers 13:30; 14:22-24
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The death of Judas, did he blow up?

A reader asks: Judas blew up? (Acts 1:18)

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Judas
“Judas Iscariot (right), retiring from the Last Supper”

Here’s one translation.  With the reward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out.

And here’s King James Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.

Sounds more like he fell from a great distance and when he hit his body broke open. The Greek word translated as “burst asunder” or “burst open” means to burst asunder with a crack, crack open.

Here’s a good article on the two references to the death of Judas in the four gospels (one mentions hanging and the other mentions falling)
http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/143

References:
Picture By Carl Heinrich Blochhttp://www.carlbloch.org/The-Last-Supper.jpg, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10115340
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What tree was Christ crucified on?

A Reader asks:
The cross that Jesus was crucified on, was it made from the Dogwood tree?
Also, the wreath of thorns that Jesus wore, what was it made from? And could you please direct me as to where it is located if anyplace in the Bible.

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cross
None of the well-known Bible Dictionaries speculates on the type of wood used for the cross.

The Bible does not state what type of wood was used to make the cross. Nor does it state what type of plant was used for the crown of thorns. Smith’s Bible Dictionary has this to say about the crown of thorns:
Crown of thorns,
Matthew Our Lord was crowned with thorns in mockery by the Roman soldiers. Obviously, with some small flexible thorny shrub, perhaps Capparis spinosa. “Hasselquist, a Swedish naturalist, supposes a very common plant naba or nubka of the Arabs, with many small and sharp sines; soft, round and pliant branches; leaves much-resembling ivy, of a very deep green, as if in designed mockery of a victor’s wreath.” –Alford.

None of the well-known Bible Dictionaries speculates on the type of wood used for the cross.

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Why is there no evidence for the Israelites taking over Canaan?

Secular archaeologists say there is no evidence of a group of people destroying and/or taking over multiple cities during the time of the exodus. Thus, they say, there is no evidence for that part of Biblical history.

Secular historians say that during the time of the exodus, if there was one, the Canaanites were a group of small dying villages.

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Evidence
“I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.”

This is what God tells Moses as the Israelites move to inherit the land promised to Abraham. (see Exodus 23:29-30 King James Authorized)
“I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.”

It sounds as if God is saying that as the Israelites grow in number and spread out, the existing inhabitants will be dying out. This is exactly what happened. Although the Exodus mentions some battles (Jericho for example), the majority of the battles are defensive battles for lands already settled.

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Who was St. George?

St. George (Georgios) which means “worker of the land” was born around 280 AD and died on April 23, 303. He was known as a defender of the persecuted Christians and died as one himself. Although there are several noted events from history around this great figure, there is a lot of speculation on what is fact or just legend. Pope Gelasius accurately pronounced that St. George was part of those saints, “whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God.”

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The Life of St. George

When George was only 14 years old, his father Gerontios died. Just a few years later, his mother Polychronia also passed away. This caused him to travel to Nicomedia and beseech Emperor Diocletian for work as a soldier. He was accepted warmly due to his father’s legacy of being one of his best fighters. Before he was in his 30s, George was advanced in rank to Tribunus and sent as a royal guard for the Emperor at Nicomedia.

St._George
“The martyrdom of Saint George”

Martyrdom 

February 24, 303 AD, Emperor Diocletian was persuaded by Galerius to proclaim an order to arrest every soldier that was Christian. All the others were to make sacrifices to the Roman gods. George bravely stood up for his beliefs and confronted Diocletian. The Emperor was unhappy and did not want to lose his most favored tribune. However, George had publicly defied the order in the sight of his comrades and revealed that he was also a believer in Jesus Christ. Despite bribery to recall his words, St. George stood firm.

Diocletian was firm in sticking to his decree and condemned George to death for his rebellion. Before he was martyred, George donated all he had to the needy. His beheading did not occur until after several different sessions of torture.

Empress Alexandra and Athanasius, who was a pagan priest, were witnesses to his sufferings and converted to Christianity from his example. They were then also martyred.

His Legacy

The bravery of his actions in defending his faith and standing up for Christians made him a time honored figure for people all over. England, in particular, has him as their patron saint and display his emblem of a red cross on a white background as their flag. This was partially started by Richard The Lion Heart, who had used it in England during the 12th century. That symbol was worn on the tunics of the King’s soldiers during battle to prevent confusion.