Thutmose II is a name that means “Born of Thoth”. He was noted as the fourth ruler of Egypt during the 18th dynasty. He also built some monuments and led two other campaigns. Other than that, he did little during his reign as he was largely influenced by Hatshepsut, his wife. Thutmose II reigned during 1493 to 1479 BC, which is where he can be located on the Bible Timeline Poster. His body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache, and now can be viewed in Cairo’s Egyptian Museum.
Background Thutmose II was considered as the lesser son of Thutmose I because his mother was a minor named Mutnofret. However, he was married to Hatshepsut, who was the royal half-sister of Thutmose II, which helped maintain his kingship in the land. He was also able to end several rebellions held in Nubia, and he led an army that defeated nomadic groups of the Bedouins. However, these campaigns were only headed by the generals of the king and not by Thutmose II. Hence, this proved that he was indeed a minor even though he was pharaoh.
Thutmose II and Hatshepsut There were archaeologists who claimed that Hatshepsut was indeed the actual force behind Thutmose II during the time of his rule. The evidence behind this claim included the similarities in the foreign and domestic policies that were implemented under his kingship. Moreover, there were various relief scenes made from the Karmak gateway, and these presented the reign of Thutmose II along with his wife.
Thutmose II and His Period of Reign
There were some debates whether Thutmose II was indeed the king of Egypt during the period of Exodus. For instance, there were researchers who claimed that Thutmose II reigned for 13 years, although newer scholars believed he only ruled for 3 to 4 years. Because of a lack in the number of monuments and scarabs made under Thutmose II.
In Exodus 4:19, God commanded Moses to go back to Egypt as all the men who wanted to kill him were already dead. The ruler of the land at that time was believed to Thutmose II, who was also referred to as Gardiner. Historians considered him as a weak and lesser king, and he was greatly dominated by his wife Hatshepsut during his reign.
Based on the chronology of Pharaohs that ruled Egypt, it appeared that Thutmose II was the only possible candidate to have been the leader during the time of Exodus. For instance, there were claims that his body was recovered after his supposed drowning in the Red Sea. Although in Exodus 14:30, it was mentioned that the people of Israel discovered that the Egyptians died upon the seashore.
However, there are some uncertainties with the identities of the Egyptian Royal mummies and their time of rule. This was caused by the re-interment and re-labelling made during the 21st dynasty. Hence, there are still divided beliefs when it comes to the actual year of the reign of Thutmose II, or if he was indeed the actual Pharaoh that ruled during the Exodus narrated in the Bible.
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