It was believed that by about 2000 BC, Achaeans or tribes of Indo-European Greeks set foot in Greece. Here, they gained control of the early inhabitants of the land and formed citadels at various sites including Mycenae, Athens and Pylos. The Achaeans were also referred to as Mycenaeans, and they have incorporated and developed the Minoan cultures. Although this group of people were warlike by nature, they excelled in trading.
Further Studies about the Mycenaeans of Ancient Greece
In a study by Heinrich Schliemann, the Mycenaean kings gained much wealth during their rule. As evident in the different archaeological finds including precious items made of ivory, silver and gold. Moreover, the royal palace located at Mycenae had impressive and vast storerooms, lavish audience rooms and elegant walls with fresco designs. There were also tombs that were made of cut stone, which also appeared as intricate and impressive as the other structures in the area. As the Mycenaean civilization progressed, colonies began to spread in the eastern Mediterranean. By 1450 BC where Lydians can be found on the Bible Timeline Chart, Knossos was also conquered when the labyrinthian Palace was destroyed by fire. However, this very same palace was reconstructed by the Mycenaeans, and Aegean civilization was transferred to mainland Greece.
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Early History of Lydia
The Neo-Hittite kingdom handled the developments made on Lydia. After the empire of the Hittites reached its end in 12 BC. During the rule of the Hittites, Lydia was referred to as Arzaea, and it was dominated by people who spoke in the Luqian language. However, there was a Greek source that claimed the Lydian kingdom’s original name was Maionia. Also, Homer’s texts referred to Lydia’s inhabitants as Maiones. He also described the capital as Hyde instead of Sardis, although it was possible that Hyde was the district’s name where Sardis was situated.
Herodotus claimed that Lydians became the new name for the occupants of the land, based on the king’s name that was Lydus. As presented in the Book of Jeremiah, Lydians was the Hebrew term for the land, and it was believed to have begun from Lud, who was the son of Shem. It is also worth noting that in the Biblical period, warriors in Lydia were known as skilled archers.
The people of Lydia were involved in trading, and they were excellent in commercial tasks. They even had customs that resembled what the Greeks had, as they were among the first groups of people who succeeded in establishing and managing retail shops. They also invented metallic coins, which were used in trades and sparked the commercial revolution that had a huge impact on Greek civilization.
By the 7th century, the kingdom of Lydia had reached its peak under the rule of Alyattes, who also decided to broaden his rule in Ionia. There were even greater developments in the kingdom largely because of the rule of Croesus, who was the son of Alyattes. However, the Lydian monarchy soon reached its end because of the Persians under the rule of Cyrus.
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