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Hittites Take Nineveh

Hittites, which means “Heth ” means “sons of terror”. Heth is the great grandson of Noah. These people existed during the Bronze Age and settled in Anatolia specifically on the lands nearby Hattusa and Nesa. They are one of the nations of Ham found on the Bible Timeline around 1400 BC. They were known for their military exploits using chariots in war. In fact, some Hittites were part of king David‘s army as top military leaders. In fact, Uriah, the general of king David and Bathsheba’s husband, was a Hittite. The reason for such is their skills in creating iron artifacts that help them develop tools. During the days of Abraham, they have lived among the Israelites. Abraham himself transacted with the Hittites when he purchased a burial plot from Ephron.

Hittite rhyton

There are many archeological expeditions that recovered many artifacts from the Hittites. One such is the Hittite rhyton displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art. Most of the archives recovered in cuneiform tablets were written using the Akkadian language. Scholars like Archibald Henry Sayce believed that Hittites were as powerful as the “divided kingdom of Egypt”. Likewise, he also suggested that the relationship between Judah and this group of people was rather friendly.

Hittites take Nineveh (around 1400 BC)

A little background about the Assyrian empire helps people understand the events that preceded the fall of Nineveh. The capital of the Assyrian empire was Nineveh . Assyria was a powerful empire complete with engineering and architectural feats. However, its history is marked by extreme cruelty and oppression as it continuously oppressed Mesopotamians and Babylonians. Resisting Assyria could mean death to a whole town as the population is decimated by its known siege engines. The Assyrian empire was responsible for dispersing people from Israel by taking them as captives. Nonetheless, the fall of Nineveh was already forecasted by the Hebrew prophet Zepheniah. The wrath of God fell upon Nineveh as attested by the research made by David Stronach. The research was partly funded by the National Geographic Society. The remains witnessed by Stronach manifested the gruesome death met by warriors of Nineveh. Allied forces of Babylonians included the military might of Hittites.

What Part of the Bible Mention Hittites?

  • Deuteronomy 20:17- Completely destroy them- the Hittites,Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivittes, and Jebusites. God wanted this tribes to be destroyed by Israel.
  • Genesis 23:5- The Hittites replied to Abraham,
  • Genesis 10: 15 – This indicated that Canaan was the father of Sidon and the Hittites
  • Judges 3:5- This passage states that children of Israel also dwelled among different groups of people including the Hittites
  • Judges 1:26 – The passage tells of a man who built a city in the land of Hittites named Luz
  • Genesis 36:2- Esau’s wives came from different groups including Adah (a Hittite)
  • 1 Kings 11:1-2- The passage narrates the hundreds of women that King Solomon loves. Hittite women were part of his harem. God forbids the king to take part with such alien nations since they will eventually corrupt his heart.
  • Genesis 15: 20- Hittites was one of the lands promised by God to his nation Israel


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Phoenicia the First Trading Nation

The Phoenicians were a maritime people that lived in coastal city-states that bordered the western part of the Mediterranean Sea. Phoenicians were also known as Canaanites, and they were well known as a nation of traders and craftsmen. The Phoenicians came into power around 1200 B.C., and their civilization went into decline about 900 years later in 300 B.C.  These dates are shown on the Biblical Timeline Poster.

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The commercial network of Phoenicia

Some of the most historically significant cultures spoke about Phoenicia in the past. Rome, Greece and Israel all had contact with the Phoenician people. The Phoenicians had monopolized and traded many goods not only with people in the Mediterranean but also from the Middle East. The Phoenicians probably were not the first major trading nation in recorded history, but they once were significant in world economic affairs for thousands of years.
The Phoenicians were known for trading juniper, purple die, cypress wood, embroided linen, oaks from Bashan, cedar from Lebanon, turquoise, honey and olive oil. Tyre was also known to trade their goods for slaves, gold, silver, copper and tin.
The Bible doesn’t contain the word Phoenicia, but it does talk about Tyre. This city was the most well known of all Phoenician city-states. King Solomon had traded and purchased raw materials from the Phoenicians to build Solomon’s Temple. God acknowledges Tyre as a major financial and economic power and condemns the Phoenicians because they would not worship him. Jesus Christ also echoes this same train of thought concerning Tyre when he condemns cities that would not repent of their sins and turn to him for forgiveness. Jezebel was a Phoenician princess who married King Ahab, a former ruler of Israel. During Ahab’s reign, she killed many of God’s priests and instituted the worship of Baal. God was not pleased with her and ultimately had her killed.
Tyre was always regarded as an economic power but all throughout scripture they were portrayed as people who didn’t follow after God. Since these people were Canaanites, they worshipped gods similar to Baal. This particular deity was the god of many ancient enemies of Israel. Ultimately God had wiped out the Phoenicians and removed their influence and power from the world.

Biblical References to Phoenicia

  • 2 Samuel 5:11 King Hiram of Tyre sends messengers and raw materials to King David to build him a house.
  • 1 Kings 5:1 King Hiram sends King Solomon servants in memory of his father, David.
  • 1 Kings 9:11 King Hiram provides Solomon with raw materials for the temple.
  • 1 Kings 16: 30-31 tells about Jezebel’s marriage to Ahab.
  • 1 Kings 18: 13, 19 Introduces idol worship to God’s people.
  • 1 Kings 19: 1-3 Jezebel tries to eliminate God’s prophet, Elijah.
  • 2 Kings 9: 30-37 Jezebel dies a terrible death.
  • Ezekiel 27 God acknowledges Tyre’s powerful economic position, but he condemns the city for not believing in him.
  • Isaiah 23 speaks of God’s judgment and condemnation of Tyre.
  • Mathew 11:21 Jesus condemns the cities of Chorazin and Bethsaida for not believing in his miracles, and he claims that Tyre will fare better during judgment than those two cities.
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Ark of the Covenant Erected

The Ark of the Covenant is a sacred object in Jewish and Christian tradition. The Ark of the Covenant was a physical representation of God among the Jewish nation. The Jews are considered God’s chosen people and when Moses led them to the Promise Land, God had given them the Ark while they made the journey.  The erection of the Ark of the Covenant is placed on the Bible Timeline around 1445 BC.

The Ark of the Covenant is more than just a material object that represents God, his power and his deity. The Israelites carried the Ark ahead of their group as they trekked through the wilderness for over 40 years. Since the Israelites did not have any permanent structures they didn’t have a temple to worship God. One of the reasons why God sent them the ark was so that they could be reminded that it was God who was constantly providing for and taking care of them. The ark was carried when they went into battle and it was used to house the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God.

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‘”Almighty God the Father”, by Antoine Coypel, detail of the ceiling of the chapel of the Palace of Versailles, Yvelines, France.’

God had given Moses certain instructions for building the Ark. God told Moses that the Jewish people were supposed to construct the ark out of wood. Once the wooden part of the ark was erected they would then cover the inside with gold as well as the outside. The Ark was also to have a crown of gold and rings of gold as well. The staves were supposed to be made from wood and covered with gold. These staves were used to carry the Ark.

In the book of Revelation, readers are given a snapshot of the ark as it is seen in heaven. In this particular book of the Bible, heaven opens up during end time events and the Ark of the Covenant can be seen in heaven. This is important to know because the Ark of the Covenant is patterned after God’s temple in heaven. This is an important point as to why God gave the Israelites specific instructions about how to build the ark.

The Ark of the Covenant was used by the Israelites during their many battles. When Joshua was in charge of the Israelites, the ark was used in the process of defeating Israel’s enemies at Jericho. When the ark was used by the Israelites God’s power had manifested through it as a sign that he would fight for them or give them the ability to overcome their enemies.

Israel’s most famous king, David, wanted to build God a temple, but God didn’t allow him. Even though the Lord was pleased with David’s request. The king had shed too much blood for God to allow him to complete the task. This is why King Solomon was left with the task of building the temple to house the ark.

Once Solomon had constructed the ark it rested there up until the time the Babylonians destroyed the temple in 586 B.C. After this point, no one on Earth is absolutely sure about the whereabouts of the ark. What actually happened to this religious relic is the subject of debate, mystery and controversy.


  • Exodus 25 outlines the instructions that God gives to Moses for building and decorating the ark.
  • Exodus 26:33 Gives specific instructions for keeping the ark contained in the Holy of Holies
  • Exodus 30:6 the ark is called the Ark of Testimony.
  • Exodus 30:26 the ark is anointed with sacred oil.
  • Numbers 10:33 the ark is supposed to be carried by the Israelites on their journeys.
  • Numbers 14:43 the ark is called a symbol of God’s presence and glory.
  • Deuteronomy 10:8 the ark is only supposed to be carried by the Levite Priests.
  • Deuteronomy 31:26 is the verse in the Bible that God commands Moses to place the two broken tablets that contain a copy of the law inside of the ark.
  • Joshua 4:7 the ark divides the Jordan River.
  • Joshua 6: 6-20 used in the process of destroying the walls of Jericho.
  • 1 King 8: 1-6 the ark is brought to Solomon’s Temple.
  • Psalms 40:8 the ark is considered a type of Christ.
  • Revelation 11:19 the ark is patterned after God’s temple in heaven.


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Thutmose I Egypt and the Bible

Thutmose I was the 18th-dynasty king of ancient Egypt whose reign spanned from 1493-c. 1482 BC which is where he appears on the Bible Timeline. Thutmose was also known as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis. He came to power after the reign of Amenhotep I who reigned from 1525 BC – 1504 BC. Biblical references of Thutmose I can particularly be found in the Psalms of David. The length of his reign is uncertain with nine years being the highest attested number of years.

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Thutmose I is believed to have been the son of his predecessor Amenhotep I who was otherwise known as Amenophis. His mother was Semiseneb and his chief wife and consort was Queen Ahmose. He is known to have fathered five children. They were Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Amenmose, Wadjmose, and Nefrubity.

Thutmose_I, Egyptian_Pharoah
Thutmose I

Contradictory Information

Some seem to be of the opinion that Thutmose was not the son of Amenhotep, but rather the son of an unknown military man and a mother whose name was Seniseneb. The name Seniseneb is documented on the “Accession Announcement” of Turi, vice king of Nubia. There are also schools of thought that Thutmose I was the alter ego of King David of Israel.

It is said that Thutmose I, being the son of a non-royal mother may have strengthened his claim to the throne by marrying Queen Ahmose who was perhaps of relation to his predecessor Amenhotep. Other views are that he might have come to power after serving with Amenhotep as coregent for an unspecified period. This view is supported by a chapel found at Thebes. In a letter to the viceroy of Nubia, he communicated his new titulary and coronation on his accession day.


The achievements of Thutmose I the 18th king of Egypt included expanding the Egyptian empire in Nubia (now known as Sudan) and also penetrating deep into Syria. He accomplished this by defeating the Syrians and quelling a rebellion in Nubia. Following his conquest of Nubia, he sought to provide an easier means of traveling upstream from Egypt to Nubia by building a canal. Some monuments of note that he built under his architect Ineni were temples, obelisks, pylons shrines and statues which were located at the temple complex of Karnak.

During his Reign

During his second reign Thutmose I, led a river bourne expedition beyond the boundaries his predecessor crossed and went deep into Nubia. One reason for targeting this area was to access its rich gold deposits. This gold source was greatly exploited during the 18th dynasty (1539 – 1292 BCE).

Another main reason for the venture was that the hostile Kushite kingdom, centered near the Third Cataract, had been a major problem for Egypt during the 17th dynasty (c. 1630 – 1540 BCE).  Inscriptions which can be found along the way indicates that he went past the Fourth Nile Cataract and set up a new boundary at Kurgus. The biographies of two Upper Egyptians, who were among the forces that made this campaign, bear testimonies of the venture.

After conquering Nubia, Thutmose went on to penetrate the Euphrates River in the vicinity of Carchemish in Syria. He was in pursuit of the Hyksos, Asiatic rulers who had recently dominated Egypt. One of the text in Nubia records that while, before the Syrian foray, Thutmose claimed the Euphrates as his border. There is no other existing evidence that there were earlier victorious campaigns, but the Nubian text indicates that a there had already been a deep penetration of Syria.

Once in Egypt Thutmose I carried out a thorough renovation of the Middle Kingdom (1938-c. 1630 BCE) temple of Amon at Thebes. An enclosure wall was erected and two pylons were erected at the western end with a small pillared hall in between. He added two obelisks in front of the outer pylon and created the axial temple, which became a standard for the New Kingdom (1539-1075 BCE).

Thutmose appointed two crown princes who predeceased him. One was appointed a commander of the armies and was sent to Memphis, located close to Cairo. This became a military operations center in the New Kingdom and later kings followed Thutmose example and assigned their crowned princes to Memphis where they were trained in the military arts.

Tomb/Burial Site

Thutmose I died in the year 1492BC and was buried at Valley of the Kings. He is said to be the first king to cut his tomb in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes possibly as a means of obtaining greater security for it. He expanded the cemetery workers’ village at Dayr al-Madinah in western Thebes. He was also responsible for the completion of the organization of the necropolis staff that was started by Amenhotep his predecessor. His tomb bears the reference number KV38 and was discovered during the years 1859 – 1946 by the Egyptologist Victor Loret.

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Egypt Amenhotep and the Bible

Amenhotep was the son of another Egyptian pharaoh named Amhose I. He came into power during the early part of the 15th century B.C. which is where he is found on the Biblical Timeline. Many speculate that he was a child when he took the throne. Scholars and historians cannot pinpoint the exact time of his reign because they are not able to accurately calculate the dates.

Historical records also point out the fact that his mother acted in his place as a ruler because of his extremely young age. When he was of age he married his sister Amhose-Meritamon. Amenhotep is also credited with subduing the Syrians early in his reign and as a result of his efforts he created an era of peace and prosperity which benefited all of the Egyptians.

During Amenhotep’s reign, he constructed many temples, public buildings and housing. The kingdom of Egypt wasn’t in any immediate threat from outside forces and invaders. Amenhotep had time to focus his efforts on building the Egyptian economy and infrastructure. He created the city which became known as modern day Luxor.

The Nile River was also used to expand trade within the area and to increase the revenues of the kingdom under his reign. He built a temple known as Malkata and the famous temple of Amun. He was also credited with creating artworks that would influence the New Kingdom and for creating two important literary pieces. One of these works was known as the Book of what is in the Underworld and this book influenced later Egyptian funeral rights. During his reign, the Ebers Papyrus was created and this was the foremost source of information for ancient Egyptian medical practices. Amenhotep supposedly had died from an unknown disease.

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Amenhotep I image

Shortly after his death he was deified by some Egyptians and became the patron god of Deir el Medina which was the home to many artisans who worked in the Valley of the Kings. Amenhotep also had cultic following that sprang up once he was dead. He tried to make his tomb obscure in order to keep it hidden from grave robbers. His body was mummified and it was kept in perfect condition for many centuries. Once the New Kingdom had arrived his body was mummified once again in order to continue  to preserve its excellent condition.

Amenhotep also had a son that died early in childhood and since he didn’t have another heir to succeed his throne the position was given to a military commander named Thutmose. The reason why Thutmose had access to the throne was due to his marriage to Amenhotep’s sister.

During the 18th dynasty of rulers in Egypt, there were four pharaohs who were given the name of Amenhotep. Ahmose I started the line of succeeding rulers that had the name of Amenhotep and Amenhotep I was the succeeded his rule in 1524 B.C. Amenhotep II started his rule in 1424 B.C. and Amenhotep III took the throne in 1388 B.C. When the name Amenhotep is used by itself it usually indicates the first Amenhotep ruler during the 18th dynasty.

Amenhotep ruled Egypt around the time of the Jewish Exodus from the region which was in 1514-1493 B.C. The actual date of the Exodus is unknown by many scholars and historians, but many authorities place the event between the years of 1514 to 1212 B.C. The actual date of the Jewish Exodus cannot be agreed upon by historians. No one is sure. Amenhotep is listed as one of a few pharaohs from this time period who resisted God and Moses by not letting the Israelites go free.

The historical records of Amenhotep do not mention anything about the historical events of the Exodus. Keep in mind that many Egyptian priests or record keepers would probably not record the events surrounding the Exodus because it would have brought shame on Amenhotep and his dynasty. Kings, rulers and dynasties might have had bad events during their time in power but many of them would probably have been written out of its history because everyone tries to make their time in power one of greatness.  The fact that Amenhotep had a first born son that died at an early age could be proof of that he was the pharaoh of the Exodus, but once again this is purely speculative. Amenhotep is considered a popular pharaoh who emerged from the Middle Kingdom era.

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China Beginning of Lyric Poetry

While rhyming poetry mostly had its early beginnings in Ancient Greece the sole idea of lyrical poetry had its roots in the ancient empirical nation of China. Lyrical poetry is defined in its most basic form as poetry that is compounded with feelings and flittering verses of emotion. This form of poetry does not necessarily need to rhyme and yet it is termed as lyrical poetry because it used to be set to be accompanied by a lyre or it could be finely tuned to be sung along with a lyre.  The ancient beginnings of lyric poetry are placed on the Bible Timeline Chart at 1500 BC.

The earliest forms of Chinese poetry are  called lyrical poetry and there can be a bit of confusion on the standings of its structure. Some poems that do not rhyme in their ancient Chinese form are considered as lyrical poetry while those that do or at least carry a similarity with modern poem structures are not considered poems by lyrical experts.

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Chinese Poetry

The earliest recorded collection of Chinese poetry dates back to the Classic of Poetry which is known as the Shijing in China. Many attribute the collection to be a collective endeavor of the Chinese philosopher Confucius who lived approximately between 551 BC and 479 BC however this is still debatable.

Many experts and researchers have taken into agreement that the Classic of Poetry dates beyond Confucius and place the beginning of lyric poetry at around 600 BC or even earlier which sets in tone the beginning of Chinese and Japanese history in the timeline. The symbol of Shi is now generally the symbol generalized for poetry and the Shiji carries the most basic and ancient of the form of a four-character meter structure now popularized in Chinese lyric poetry.

While the idea that a lot of the work was done by Confucius might be a bit of a stretch, it is agreed he may have had some work in the compilation, it is agreed that a lot of the content is actually a compilation of work dating at least four centuries since its publication.

Following the Classic of Poetry is the famous Chu Ci (Ci being pronounced as tsuh). Along with the Shi Jing, the Chu Ci is the most famous collection of ancient Chinese verse and is generally termed as the high peak of the earliest form of lyric poetry in the region. The Chu Ci is also referred to as the Songs of the South and most of the content of the collection of verses are concentrated on the events surrounding the warring Chinese factions of the southern region. This was later referred to in a different text as the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. While the Chu Ci holds less influence in modern poetry than the Shi Jing it actually has a lot of direct implication on the development of Chinese lyric poetry that has led to the argument that, in essence, the Chu Ci is far more influential than the aforementioned Shi Jing..

Afterwards, lyric poetry  branched out. During the Han Dynasty, there developed a different form of poetry known as Fu and this was mostly attributed to Han Poetry which is a later development of lyric poetry. The most famous compilation is known as the Nineteen Old Poems (Ku Shih Shih-Chiu Shih in its ancient Chinese structure). This collection of poems was extremely prominent in later on lyrical poems. This is mostly brought about since they featured a five character structure contrary to the four character structure of the aforementioned Shi Jing poems. The differences here lapped over with the development of the Jian’an Poetry and the Six Dynasty Poetry of latter day empirical China.

Overall the development of early lyric poetry is clearly shown to have developed very early on in China dating six centuries BC down to the very years of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. The elements in these lyric poems have later gone on to develop modern Chinese poetry, both those that rhyme and those that do not, and have gone on to develop folk-style lyrical structures that can be seen even in the west and in medieval poetry that developed almost a millennium later. To date the Shi Jing, Chu Ci and Nineteen Old Poems are the greatest collection in the world of ancient lyric poetry and are the strongest remnants of ancient Chinese literature that go side by side with the teachings and compilations of Confucius and the latter scrolls of Chinese Buddhism that date from the early 1st AD to the latter development of the last Chinese dynasty.

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China, Animal Sacrifice in

China has been known for many things in the present world including the fact that the country is now developing to be a world recognized economy.

However,  China also has a great history that dates back to emperor Huang Di, the yellow emperor. The history of animal sacrifice occurs in China about 1500 BC although it could also have started much earlier since there were bones found inscribed with divination with the oldest dating about 3500 years.  It is placed on the Bible World History Timeline at 1500 BC.

The Chinese rites of passage and rituals included animal sacrifices like many other cultural practices in the Middle East. However, animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC were also sometimes accompanied by human sacrifices during burials, a fact that could be used to show the uniqueness of the Chinese animal sacrifices during this period.

Animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC was presided over by high priests who are credited with being the very first people to begin a state in the world. The Shang offered animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC as a way of honoring the ancestors and natural spirits who gave them power and determined how the Shang state would be governed. The animal sacrifices were sometimes accompanied with human sacrifices for the same reasons. It is at this time that urban craftsmen in China started making great products such as ceramics and their bronze castings were at their best.

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Yellow Emperor

The high priests were the rulers of the state they are credited to have started and they referred to themselves as the sons of Heaven. It is worth mentioning that although animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC were conducted in China, there is only the mention that the sacrifices were to appease the ancestors and spirits and not a god. Some believe that at this time the Chinese were religious although a god to them may not have existed and believed that their powers came from the ancestors and spirits of those that had lived in the lands before.

Other reports indicate that the supreme god of the Chinese, ShangDi was the reason for the many animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC when the Shang state was founded. The animals used for the sacrifices to ShangDi were lambs and sheep because the Chinese apparently recognized the sheep as a source of truthfulness, beauty, righteousness and eternity. It is, however, not explained why the animals sacrifices around 1500 BC were accompanied by human sacrifices. There is no mention of how the humans offered for sacrifice were selected and neither did they explain what the humans represented. Perhaps an explanation of the human sacrifices that sometimes accompanied the animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC could be to show the ancestors and the spirits, or ShangDi, the supreme Chinese god, that the people humbled themselves so that they could even offer one of them to either receive sanctity or win a certain favor from whom the sacrifices were directed.

Animal sacrifices in china were conducted with great spirituality since they represented a very important part and the link between the Chinese and their god, Shang Di. It is believed that ShangDi was a loving creator of the Chinese race, and, therefore, they humbled themselves to his command. When the sins of those in China were so many, the god blocked the path between heaven and earth so that the people when ahead and sacrificed a lamb to show how humble they were.

The most important sacrifice in the Shang state was that of Emperor Tang who disguised himself as a lamb, and was thus sacrificed so that god sent rain to the people as a result of the humble action of the emperor.

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Indo-Germanic Tribes and the Bible, Rise of

The term “Indo-Germanic” came from the word “indogermanisch” coined by German Orientalist Heinrich Julius von Klaproth in 1823. Making it a popular term for German scholars to refer to Amorite tribes during the middle bronze age in Mesopotamia. Among Indio-Germanic tribes are those dwelling near the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, sometimes called Indo-Iranians and Aryans. Celebrated Indo-Germanic tribes in the Bible include Amorites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, and Persians.

 Rise of Indo-Germanic Tribes (2000BC – 1700BC)
The rise of Indo-Germanic tribes is on the Bible Timeline Poster from 2000 BC – 1700 BC era. The primary and most important civilization at that time was Mesopotamia. The Akkadian Empire and Ur dynasty ruled North and South Mesopotamia, respectively. The Akkadian Empire lasted until the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur in 2112 BC. Around 2000 BC when the power of the UR dynasty declined, the Amorites occupied much of Mesopotamia. Amorites are nomads from the West and are long-standing rivals of the Sumerians. These Amorites established a kingdom in primary Mesopotamian states like Mari, Yamkhad, Qatna, Assyria (under Shamshi-Adad I), Isin, Larsa, and Babylon. Thus, the rise of Indo-Germanic tribes in this Mesopotamian era is also synonymous with the rise of Amorite Kingdoms.

The Amorite Kingdom in Mari

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Mari in relation to Babylon

Mari was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city presently called Tell Hariri, Syria. The Amorite dynasty revived the city of Mari at around 1900 BC after its destruction in the mid-24th century BC by either Sargon of Akkad or the Eblaites, Mari’s traditional commercial rivals. It’s king, Zimri-Lim, built a royal palace of over 3000 rooms.

The Amorite Kingdom in Yamhad

Yamhad (also known as Yamkhad or Jamhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom with its capital at Ḥalab, presently called Aleppo. This Amorite kingdom enjoyed prosperity in 1800 BC – 1600 BC together with its greatest rival, another Amorite kingdom in Qatna of the south. The Amorite Kingdom in Qatna Qatna, also called Qatanum, is one of the largest Bronze Age towns in western Syria, presently called Tell el-Mishrife. Its first king under an Amorite Kingdom is Ishi-Adad (or Haddad), an ally of Shamshi-Adad I of upper Mesopotamia, king of Assyria.

The Amorite Kingdom in Assyria

The rise of the Amorite in Assyria, an ancient home of the Akkadian Empire and  northern Iraq of the present day, has been attributed Shamshi-Adad I who seized the throne from a native Akkadian king Erishum II in 1813 BC. Shamshi-Adad I is also a descendant of the native ruler Ushpia, who formalized the Assyrian monarchy of the Assyrian empire.

The Amorite Kingdom in Isin and Larsa

Isin was an ancient city-state in Lower Mesopotamia while Larsa is an important ancient city being the center of worship of the sun god Utu. Although not totally captured Isin, Gungunum, an Amorite son of Samium, ruled Larsa (1868 BC – 1841 BC) and brought economic and political havoc to Isin during his reign. His successors also crippled Isin’s economy leaving the city-state with few inhabitants.

The Amorite Kingdom in Babylon

The city-state of Babylon was established by an Amorite ruler Sumuabum in the early 18th century BC. The kingdom started as a small nation with little power compared to established kingdoms like Isin, Larsa, Assyria, and Elam. However, the kingdom enjoyed glorious years on its sixth ruler Hammurabi in 1792 BC – 1750 BC conquering city-states of Isin, Eshnunna, Uruk, Mari and eventually Assyria to dominate in Mesopotamia.

Indo-Germanic Tribes in the Bible

Genesis 10:15-16. Amorites are descendants of Canaan, son of Ham.

Deuteronomy 3:11. Amorites are tall people and of a great physique.

Deuteronomy 4:46-48. Amorites have two kings in the east of Jordan.

Deuteronomy 1:7. Amorites occupy the southern mountains of Judea.

Joshua 10:10-27. On the days of Joshua, five Amorites already ruled Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon.

1 Samuel 7:14. During the time of Samuel, there is peace between Israelites and Amorites.

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Rameses II and the Bible

Rameses II is the son of Seti I who became an Egyptian Pharaoh in his 30th year of age. He ruled Egypt for about 67 years. He was believed to be the greatest and the most renowned pharaoh of Egypt. As the 3rd Egyptian pharaoh of the new kingdom, he ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC , which is where he is found on the Amazing Bible Timeline with World History.

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Ramses II
Ramses II

Rameses II Conquest with the Hittites

Being the leader of a nation brings with it a responsibility to keep his land free from the danger of invasion.  It is an obligation of a Pharaoh to make use of his power to maintain the peace of his land during his supremacy. Rameses II most famous fight of conquest was the one with the Hittites of Kadesh. During his fifth year of being a Pharaoh, Rameses II battled in Syria against the Hittites and its alliance. The war continued for twenty years after the series of battles with the Hittites.

In his second battle, Rameses II experienced difficulties during his attack on Athe, a city of Kadesha where he almost fell during the battle through deceit. It happened when he grouped his soldiers into four groups namely: Amun, Ra, Ptah and Setekh. Rameses II led the Amun division outside the city with the Ra division about a mile and a half behind. The Hittites however, hid waiting to ambush the Pharaoh’s army. They first attacked the Ra division so that the Pharaoh wouldn't have it as reinforcement. Fortunately, the group managed to escape. The Hittites then attacked the Amun group and surrounded the Pharaoh. However, Ramses II managed to fight back in the combat and was able to pave the way out for him and his men after killing quite a large number of Hittites. 

After that, the Pharaoh and his men camped to regroup the army. They then went into battle again for four hours until all of them were drained of energy.  Rameses II decided to pull his army out from the battle.

It was a draw battle. After several years, Rameses II reached an agreement with the prince of the Hittites. It was settled that Egypt and the Hittites were not to invade or attack each other’s land. They also formed an alliance to defend one another against common enemies and in subduing revolts in Syria. 13 years after the truce, Rameses II married the daughter of Manefrure’s, the prince of Hittite, a daughter named Hattusilis.

Ramases II as a Pharaoh

Ramases II was considered to be a great fighter. However, he was also seen as an incompetent leader. He took credit not due to him and consumed most of the wealth of Egypt in maintaining his name by building big projects during his reign. He scribed his name everywhere on the shrines and buildings in Egypt and even put his name on statues that were not his own.

However, overall, Rameses II was known to be “Ramses the Great” because he was truly a great family man, a religious leader, builder and a great warrior. By the time he died at 90 years of age, Egypt was rich through his conquest of other empires.

Rameses II in the Bible

Of all the Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt in the new kingdom, Rameses was the only name mentioned in the Bible. Rameses also seemed to be a name of a place rather than the name of a Pharaoh.

Genesis 47:11: This was the time when Joseph, through the command of Pharaoh, brought his father and siblings to the land of Egypt that was called the ‘land of Rameses.

Exodus 1: 11: The Israelites, as slaves, worked under tight taskmasters’ commands to build the treasure cities of Pharaoh, the Pithom and the Rameses.

Exodus 12:37: The people of Israel, 600,000 thousand men on foot and unknown number of children, journeyed from the place called Rameses to another place called Succoth

Numbers 33:3: This passage in the Bible pertains to the time when the Israelites from Rameses departed Egypt on the 15th day of the first month in the morning of the Passover feast.

Numbers 33:5: The removal of Israelites from an Egyptian city Rameses to Succoth.

Due to these passages, Rameses II is suggested as the Pharaoh of Exodus, as portrayed in “The Ten Commandments” in the classic film as well as in the animation film entitled “Prince of Egypt”. However, it should be noted that there are nine other Pharaohs who took the name of Rameses. Aside from that, Moses was said to be living around the 1525 BC to 1405 BC, two hundred years before Rameses II. Other than Rameses II, Pharaoh Thutmose III was the Pharaoh in Exodus. Moses has only been proposed as the Thutmose II for the first 22 years of the Pharaoh’s his life until Moses was cast out to Midian and the half brother of Nefure (speculated to be the daughter of Pharaoh who took Moses in) took Moses place as Thutmose II. This Thutmose was the father of Thutmose III; another speculated Pharaoh of Exodus.

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Phoenicia and The Bible

 Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in Southwest Asia consisting of city-states along the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Today that area covers Syria and Lebanon. It covered most of the western and coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. The name Phoenicia may also appear as Phenice and Phenicia. Basically, Phoenicians were Canaanites who conquered and settled on several landmarks surrounding the Mediterranean coastline.  Phoenicia is found on the Biblical Timeline Chart throughout the years 1500 BC to 300 BC. The places where they occupied and created small civilizations were: Cadiz, Kition, Utica, and Lixis. Greeks were also colonizing side by side with Phoenicians who saw this as a competition between territories. As a result, Phoenicians worked double time to create bigger colonies. They established numerous colonies including Carthage in northern Africa. 

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The commercial network of Phoenicia

Phoenicians and Their Contributions to the Society

The Phoenician civilization became well-known as the foremost navigators and traders of the Mediterranean by 1250 B.C. They were the early business men who practiced the trading and the industry of marketing.They had a keen ability to trade items with other colonies and tribes in their time. Their popular product was the purple dye made from the snail. This is how they got the name Phoenicia or Phoenix in Greek, meaning purple-red. Another item that they traded were dogs bred to develop their hunting and herding skills. The Phoenicians also produced wines. When Egypt had a hard time producing wine, the Phoenicians took advantage of this and create their own to trade with Egypt. Phoenicians also created trading posts. 

They were also famous for the marine vessel that allowed them to go from one location to another and best remembered for the products that they traded with others. As the Phoenicians traveled to the edges of the known world, they introduced their alphabet that was based on symbols for sounds rather than cuneiform or hieroglyphic representations. Their culture was gradually absorbed by Persian and later Hellenistic civilizations

How Phoenicia colonized Western Europe and Africa

Phoenician did not use brute force as conquerors do. The Phoenician people colonized Western Europe and Africa using trading goods from 1200 BC to 900 BC. Phoenicians, as Canaanites, were a Hamitic tribe that occupied the shores of Lebanon. Those Canaanites trading in Greece were called Phoenicians by the Greeks so that by 3 BC Lebanon became known as Phoenicia. As businessmen, Phoenician went so far that by 200 BC, they had colonized almost all of the Mediterranean shore. They established trading ports and depots all over the great shores. As they searched for more trading partners, they rounded the whole of Africa and went to England as well as Ireland. They founded many cities in Western Europe bringing with them their skills and industry of art, glassware, fragrance and precious stones.

Phoenician Colonies and Settlements

The Phoenicians had established commercial outposts throughout the Mediterranean including Carthage in North Africa and across the narrow straits in Sicily. These are considered the most strategically important ones. With these, they were able to monopolize the Mediterranean trade and keep their rivals from passing through. Some of their colonies were in Cyprus, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Iberian Peninsula. They also founded several small outposts a day’s sail away from each other all along the North African coast en route to Spain’s mineral wealth.

Phoenicians also reached the coast of southern Spain and along the coast of present-day Portugal. They also ventured north into the Atlantic Ocean as far as Great Britain, providing them tin mines and other important materials. Meanwhile, a Carthaginian expedition that was led by Hanno the Navigator explored and colonized the Atlantic coast of Africa as far as the Gulf of Guinea. They also explored south along the coast of Africa.

Basically, the Phoenicians were not an agricultural people because most of the lands in their settlements were not arable. Because of this, they focused on commerce and trading instead which established their identity as great mariners. On the other hand, the Phoenicians influenced other groups around the Mediterranean such as the Greeks who later became their main commercial rivals.

Phoenician Trade in the Bible

Phoenicians often trade their skills with the Israelites.

The people of Israel did not have enough time to master any skills in building even while in Egypt or when they were in the desert with Moses. For this reason, King David, as well as his son King Solomon after him made use of the Phoenician people to build their temples as stated in the Biblical passage in I Chronicles 14:1. King Hiram of one  Phoenician ancient city and a seaport, Tyre, sent his craftsmen to David to provide the King of Israel cedar logs with carpenters and stonemasons so that they could build his palace. When King David died, and Solomon reigned after him, he wrote to King Hiram (I Kings 5:6) to build a temple for him as his father David was so busy warring, he was not able to build a temple for the Lord (I Kings 5:3). King Hiram sent his carpenters and stonemasons once more with cedar logs and pine trees to create the temple (I Kings 5:8-10).

The Phoenician people, especially those craftsmen from Tyre, traded with King Solomon as stated in I kings 7:13-16 where King Solomon, after finishing his house after 13 years, planned to build another one in the forest of Lebanon. Throughout the Bible from Genesis to the time of the disciples in the Book of Acts, Canaanites, Lebanon and the places of Tyre and Sidon (another city in Phoenicia which means fishing) have been mentioned.