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Barak

Barak was a minor character in the book of Judges of the Holy Bible. He is found on the Biblical Timeline around 1267 BC. Though his role was limited he played an important part of delivering Israel from the Canaanites. The judges of Israel ruled the land for nearly 350 years and during this time period the Israelites made God angry by worshipping foreign deities. God would punish them by sending them into captivity and then sending a savior to free them from their oppression. The judges not only guided Israel they were usually given the responsibility of delivering the people from tyranny when the time had arisen. Deborah was a female prophetess and judge, who was given the responsibility at one point in time of Israel’s history.

Barak was a general from the land of Kadesh who hailed from a city called Naphtali. He was the leader of thousands of men and he had become a highly regarded soldier in his land. He was a skilled warrior and competent generally who God had wanted to use to free his people. Apparently Barak was reluctant to follow after God’s command. So, the Judge Deborah sent for him and questioned him why he wasn’t obeying the Lord.

Barak still showed reluctance and told Deborah that he would not gather his forces against the Canaanites unless she would march with him. Barak’s reluctance to go to war probably stemmed from the fact that he didn’t have faith in God. It also could have resulted from fearing defeat by the hands of the Canaanites.

Eventually Barak listened to Deborah and went back home to gather his army. Once he had his army of ten thousand men he went to Tabor to confront the Canaanites. Deborah had told Barak that God would deliver the Canaanites into his hand if only he would obey. She also told him that his victory would not be his own and that it would be from God. So he was not to boast about any military accomplishment. Barak was able to defeat the Canaanites and not one of them remained.

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Jael Shows to Barak, Sisera Lying Dead, c. 1896-1902, by James Jacques Joseph Tissot

During the course of the battle, Barak chased after the leader of the Canaanites named Sisera. The Canaanite leader was killed by a woman named Jael who plunged a tent peg into his head. Once Barak found out where Sisera was at Jael showed him where his body was at because she already had killed him.

Deborah was with Barak when he won this victory. God had given Israel the victory through both of them. They ultimately defeated Jabin the Canaan King and the Canaanites were no longer a threat to Israel.

Bible References for Barak

  • Judges 4: 1-2 God is angry once again with Israel for their idolatry and decides to use the Canaanites to punish them for their sins.
  • Judges 4:3 the people of Israel cry out to God for deliverance.
  • Judges 4:6 the prophetess Deborah calls for Barak and tells him about obeying God by sending out his soldiers to fight.
  • Judges 4:8 Barak tells Deborah he will only fight if she goes into battle with him.
  • Judges 4: 10-13 Barak gathers his forces and goes to war against the Canaanites at Tabor.
  • Judges 4: 16 Barak’s forces kill the Canaanites to the last man.
  • Judges 4: 18 -21 Jael slays Sisera with a tent peg.
  • Judges 4: 22 Barak confirms Sisera’s death.
  • Judges 4: 23-24 God gives the Israelites victory over the Canaanite king Jabin and his armies.
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Samson A Judge In Israel

Samson is known as the strongest man to have walked the earth. Bible history points to Samson as the 15th judge of Israel, and that he reigned as a judge for as much as 20 years.  He is found on the Bible Timeline between 1154BC and 1124BC. Samson is a Hebrew name that translates: “Strong, distinguished.” One of the main highlights of Samson’s life was his involvement with the Philistine woman Delilah that translates as “languishing trouble.”

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Samson as a Judge

Samson may have been considered the most famous of the judges to have been appointed to Israel. He is also considered to be the most unusual with his unorthodox, and many times law-breaking ways of getting things done. The very nature of the tool with which Samson was blessed to deliver Israel (his strength) made him different and set him apart from other judges who led Israel. Samson was to single-handedly defeat the Philistines as opposed to using an army. Samson’s weakness was his love for Philistine women and his love for Delilah was to be his undoing. In spite of the many warnings that God gave him, Samson would allow the Philistine women to influence to sin over and over.

The Role of Samson’s Parents

Samson the Nazarite came from the tribe of Dan. He was born in a small town called Zorah close to the place inhabited by the Philistines. He was born to Manoah and his childless wife who one day had a visit from an angel. The angel that appeared to her told her that she would give birth to a son who would one day deliver the Hebrews from the hands of the Philistines.

The angel also gave her specifications as to how the child Samson was to be brought up, including his dedication to God from birth and his grooming. Manoah’s wife told him of the dream, and he prayed for another appearance from the Angel. His prayer was answered, and the angel appeared a second time to both Manoah and his wife. The angel repeated the predictions and the stipulations concerning the birth and upbringing of Samson.

Samson_Judge_and_Strong_Man
Samson destroys the temple

The Lord at work in Samson

The Bible reveals that God started to manifest himself in the boy Samson from an early age while he was in Mahaneh Dan which is located between the place known as Zorah and the other Eshtaol. God had specifically blessed Samson with great strength so that he would be able to fight the Philistines and deliver Israel. His long hair was a symbol of strength, and no razor was to touch his head.

The Bible records that Samson’s first demonstration of the Lord’s strength in him came when he ripped an attacking lion apart while he was on his way to visit his Philistine bride-to-be. The Bible relates that the Spirit of the Lord took control of Samson, and he overcame the lion. The second manifestation of this power was to come when Samson, in anger against his father-in-law, destroyed the crops of the Philistine.

He did this by capturing three hundred foxes, tied their tails together then set them afire and turned them loose in the fields. Samson’s strength was again proven when he slew 3,000 Philistines with a donkey’s jawbone. When the Philistines locked their gates in an attempt to lock him inside their walls, the man of God responded by pulling the gates off their hinges and carrying them up the top of a hill. Samson’s final display of strength was to result in three major occurrences, the deliverance of the Israelites from the hands of the Philistines, the destruction of the Philistines and his death. Samson fell in love with another Philistine woman Delilah. She coaxed him endlessly to tell him the secret of his strength.

After tricking her by telling her lies, Samson finally gave up his secret that resulted in him losing the symbol of strength between him and God, his hair. The Philistines took advantage of the weakened judge of Israel, and they mocked him and put out his eyes. Unknown to them, as his hair grew back Samson’s strength returned.

He used this strength at the appropriate time while thousands of Philistines had gathered in the temple of Dagon to jeer him. He had his guide lead him to the main support pillars of the temple where through a fervent prayer to God for one last blessing of strength. He braced the pillars apart and brought the temple down upon the Philistines slaying them, and he died with them in the process.

Bible References to Samson

  • Judges 13:1 to chapter 16:31. The birth and life of Samson.
  • Judges 13:24. The Spirit of the Lord started to work through Samson while he was in Mahaneh Dan.
  • Numbers 6:1-21. The vow of a Nazarene
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Samuel The Old Testament Prophet

Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, and he is considered one of the first major prophets of the Bible and the Jewish scriptures. He appears on the Biblical timeline after the death of Eli in 1154 BC. Samuel’s legacy as a prophet began when he was 13 years old, and God had anointed him for this position. By the time Samuel had become a grown man he had become an important public figure and people had known him for being a prophet of God.

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Anna presenting her son Samuel to the priest Eli

Samuel’s story began with his mother Hannah who was a barren and childless woman. Hannah could not have a child and became very distraught over the fact that she could not conceive children. She begged God to give her a child and in return she would place the child in his service. God honored her request and allowed her to become pregnant. After she had given birth to Samuel, she took care of him for the early years of his life. By the time Samuel was a teenager, he was given to the care of a priest named Eli. Once he was placed in Eli’s care, he learned about God’s ways and by the time he was a teenager God had appointed him to his future position as a prophet and leader in Israel.

From the time, Samuel was born the Philistines had been dominating and harassing the Israelites. God had given Samuel the task of gathering an army to rout the Philistines in a major battle. The people had to return their loyalty and allegiance back to God to be successful in battle. God was with the Israelites, and they defeated the Philistines at the Battle of Mizpah. Samuel was also a judge of the people of Israel and after his victory at Mizpah he led the people of Israel for many years. As a prophet, Samuel was the first person in Israel since Moses to publically declare repentance. Because he demanded that the people return to God, many considered him to be the first in a long line of prophets.
When Samuel’s leadership came to an end, he was going to place his sons in charge of the Israeli people. The Israeli people no longer wanted judges, and they wanted kings like the other nations. God granted them their request and Samuel anoints Saul as the first king. He then is used by God to declare Saul’s demise and to anoint David the son of Jesse as king. After this happens, Saul eventually dies in Ramah.

Samuel in the Bible

  • 1 Samuel 1 The story of Hannah and how she conceives Samuel.
  • 1 Samuel 2:26 Samuel receives favor from God and man.
  • 1 Samuel 3:4-11 God anoints Samuel to the position of a prophet and judge.
  • 1 Samuel 3:20 Samuel becomes a famous prophet all throughout Israel.
  • 1 Samuel 7 Samuel leads the forces of Israel against the Philistines at Mizpah.
  • 1 Samuel 7:15 Samuel is now a judge of all of Israel.
  • 1 Samuel 8:7 the people reject Samuel’s sons as the next judges and demand a king.
  • 1 Samuel 9:17 God anoints Saul as king and tells Samuel about his decision.
  • 1 Samuel 15:26 God tells Samuel to reject Saul as king.
  • 1 Samuel 16:13 Samuel anoints David as king.
  • 1 Samuel 28:3 Samuel dies at Ramah and all of the people of Israel mourn his death.
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Philistines

The Philistines were an ancient people that lived in the Middle Eastern region.  They are found on the Bible Timeline around 1200 B.C. Biblical and historical sources claim that the Philistines were a part of the Canaanite culture. These people have existed in Canaan before the arrival of the Israelites. The Philistines were also known as seamen and people who established cities close to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Even though the Philistines are not portrayed in the Bible as traders and seafarers, they were closely identified with the Phoenicians who were known for these characteristics. They were at times referred to as the people of the sea. The Philistines were mentioned in the Bible as far back as the time when God promised Abraham that he would be the father of many nations. The Philistines were the mortal enemies of the nation of Israel for hundreds of years. When the Israelites had finally settled into Canaan, they had to contend with the Philistines.

These two nations constantly fought against one another. The major reason that the Philistines and the Israelites constantly had strife was because of their differing religious beliefs. The Philistines primarily believed in Dagon and the Israelites believed in Yahweh or God. These two gods were nothing alike and this religious difference played out in the lives of the Philistines and the Israelites in forming their cultures and shaping their lives.

Another major reason as to why the Philistines resented the Israelites is because they had conquered so many people when they entered into Canaan under Joshua’s leadership. The Philistines were a powerful and warlike people, and they disliked the idea of the Israelites gaining more power. They constantly challenged the strength of Israel. God also let the Philistines remain in the land to test and punish the Israelites whenever they strayed away from worshiping him. The Philistines defeated the Israelite armies on many occasions and they even managed to get some of the people to turn away from worshiping Yahweh.

Philistines
Procession of Philistine Captives At Medinet-Habu.

The Philistines most notable mention in the Bible was during the era of the Judges and the reign of Kings Saul and David. Samson, the famed strongman, fought against the Philistines and was even overcome by a Philistine woman named Delilah. King Saul had to battle against the tyranny of the Philistines when they used the giants from Gath as a part of their armies. One Philistine giant named Goliath helped to mark the beginning of King David’s reign. The Philistines contended with Israel up until the time the Assyrians conquered the whole region during the 8th century B.C. After the Assyrians had taken over the area, the Philistines were no longer relevant and were absorbed by other cultures.

Philistines In the Bible

  • Genesis 21:34 Abraham stays in the land of the Philistines for a long time.
  • Genesis 26:1 a famine occurs in the land and Isaac looks for refuge in the land of the Philistines
  • .Genesis 6:14 the Philistines envy Isaac because of his wife and many great possessions.
  • Exodus 13:17 God doesn’t allow the Israelites to travel through the lands of the Philistines because they might have turned back to Egypt when they saw how warlike they were.
  • Judges 3:31 a judge named Shamgar kills six hundred Philistines with an ox goad.
  • Judges 10:7 God is angry with Israel, and he forces them to serve the Philistines.
  • Judges 13:5 God brings Samson into existence to free the Israelites from the Philistines.
  • Judges 14:2-4 Samson lusts after a Philistine woman named Delilah.
  • Judges 15 and 16 Delilah deceives Samson and he captured by the Philistines. Samson loses his strength but manages to get it back to destroy the Philistine rulers before he dies.
  • 1 Samuel 17 David slays Goliath
  • Zephaniah 2:5 God finally judges the Philistines, and they no longer are a relevant people in history.
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China Buries Companions of the Dead 1200 BC

The Chinese people view the divine and the mortal world as two intertwined spheres. This belief has always been a strong part of the Chinese culture and it has played a role with shaping how this particular cultural group views life and death. The Chinese people also view life as a continuation of the present reality. They claim that their departed relatives are able to commune with gods and other spirits. So they pray to them and worship them for this purpose.

During ancient times, they had a practice of burying the companions of the dead.  This is found on the Bible Timeline Chart around 1200 BC. In 1200 B.C. the Shang Dynasty ruled China and this time period is considered one of the best in the history of the Chinese people. The burial customs of the people had been altered during the rule of the Shang clan.

In the early part of the 20th-century archaeologists in China unearthed massive graves and the gravesites of ancient Chinese rulers. Starting with the gravesites of the ancient Shang rulers, historians were able to analyze how the emperors and people of high status were buried. Ancient Shang rulers were buried with various members of their families and some of their possessions. When they passed away they were buried with many of their servants who were put to death because they were considered a part of the dead ruler’s life.

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Many of their servants, concubines, and attendants had to accept the fact that when their ruler died so would they. Thousands of slaves were also found in the huge grave sites and they too were buried as objects that belong to the emperor. Archaeologists found Bronze vessels in many graves of the Shang rulers and these pots held food such as meat, fish, scorched bread and vegetables. The pots were also placed in the grave so that they could be used by the emperors in the spiritual realm. Some Shang emperors buried their wives in their grave sites as well, but this practice began to fade with time. The spirits of the deceased were supposed to remain close to the gravesites where their bodies were placed. So the utensils were also available for the departed spirits to use when they were needed.

Most people who buried during the Shang period were placed in massive graves with their fellow countrymen. The Shang people might have believed that the emperors and those with money might have been gods, but the average person was barely recognized as worthwhile.

Chinese_Bury_Companion_of_the_Dead
Oracle bones pit at Yin

Oracle bones were detailed inscriptions of the past life of the Shang people. These bones also went into detail about how the dead were buried. Tens of thousands of these bones were discovered and archaeologists decipher them in order to find out information about the burial customs of the Shang people. Chinese people never buried their leaders with companions as if they were united with one type of person that would go on into the afterlife with them. The massive grave sites of the emperors always revealed that their burial grounds were used as a form of status and importance.

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Cushan Rishathaim and the Bible

The book of Judges highlights the time that Israel was led by men and women who were God’s living representatives on the Earth.They are on the Biblical Timeline starting at 1446 BC The people who were chosen by God were usually prophets and prophetesses. They also were usually selected by God to be a deliverer of the Israeli people from their enemies.

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Israelites were held in captivity at various times all throughout the 150 years that the judges ruled the land

One of the reasons why God put the Israelis into captivity to their enemies and to godless nations was to punish them for their sins. The Israeli people constantly worshipped other God’s and followed other people’s abominable practices. These two reasons help to explain why the Israelites were held in captivity at various times all throughout the 150 years that the judges ruled the land.

When the people crossed over into the Promise Land, God purposely didn’t remove all of their enemies. Judges 2:23 states that God left some of the pagan peoples in the land to test Israel’s faithfulness to him. This is another reason why Israel had to constantly contend with cruel nations. Judges 3:8-10 tells about how Israel was placed into servitude of Cushan-Rishathaim the king of Aram-Naharam. His kingdom was established in or near ancient Mesopotamia.

Back in Judges 3:5-7 the Israeli people were intermarrying with various pagan nations. Since they were forming unions with these people, they also started to worship their gods. This is when God had enough and delivered his people over to Cushan-Rishathaim for eight years. Once they were in captivity to this king they cried out to God to free them. The Bible doesn’t go into a lot of detail about how this king treated the people, but it must not have been too pleasant since they were literally crying out to the Lord to saved them. He answered their cry and sent Othniel. God’s spirit came upon Othniel and he became the first judge in the land of Israel.

Othniel was the younger brother of Caleb who fought alongside Moses and Joshua as the people were entering into the Promised Land. Othniel was previously used by Caleb to defeat the people that lived in Kiriath-Sepher. He did this in order to marry Caleb’s daughter Aksah. Othniel went out to battle and proved to be victorious.

Caleb had given him his daughter in marriage. This incident took place in Judges 1:12-13. God generally chooses people who worship him to lead his people. Judging from what little the Bible has to say about Otheniel’s life and past accomplishments he was the perfect choice to lead the people of Israel from captivity. Othniel gathered an army and went to war against Cushan-Rishathaim and defeated him. God had given him the victory by delivering Cushan-Rishathaim into his hands. After Othniel defeated Cushan-Rishathaim Israel experienced peace for at least 40 years until he died.

  • Biblical References to Cushan Rishathaim Judges 3:5-7 Israel disappoints God by intermarrying with heathen nations.
  • Judges 3:8 God uses Cushan-Rishathaim to oppress his people for about eight years.
  • Judges 3:9 the people cry out for freedom from this oppression.
  • Judges 3:10 Othniel was chosen by God to deliver his people from Cushan-Rishathaim.
  • Judges 3:10 Othniel is given the victory by God over Cushan-Rishathaim.
  • Judges 3:11 the land has peace for 40 years up until the time that Rishathaim dies.
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Zidon The Principal Seaport

Zidon is an ancient Phoenician city that has been in existence for over 3000 years. The Phoenicians used the city as one of their major seaports, and it was an important place of economic trade and commerce. According to the Book of Genesis, the Canaanites established the people and city of Zidon. Keep in mind that Canaan was the son of Ham and the grandson of Noah. Canaan then produced a child named Zidon and he is apparently the father of the Zidonian people. Zidon as a principal seaport of the ancient world is found on the Bible Timeline around 1400 BC. According to the Bible, many of the ancient cultures of the Old Testament were established by people who had the same name as a particular ethnic group.

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Sidon Sea Castle, built by the Crusaders in AD 1228

The city of Zidon is mentioned in different scriptures within the Old Testament. Many of the references about Zidon reveals that the people there were Mariners, seafarers, traders and the worshippers of many gods. Since they were descendants of the Canaanites, they also believed in a lot of their deities. Even though this is the case, they primarily worshiped Baal, Ashtoreth and the fish-god Dagon.

The ancient Phoenician city of Tyre is supposed to have been started by members of Zidon. Once Tyre became an established seaport an instant rivalry formed between both of the cities. They competed with one another to dominate the trade in the sea. Though Zidon competed hard against Tyre to gain prominence as the major economic center for the Phoenicians, Tyre managed to become the most important seaport. Zidon wasn’t far behind of them and constantly challenged their position as a major economic power of the ancient world. Zidon specialized in producing glass and purple dye.

Religion is one of the most important themes throughout the Bible. The type of gods that each ancient culture believed in is mentioned by the authors of each book. One reason God has inspired these writers to mention ancient cultures and their deities is to warn people today about worshipping false gods. Zidon was an ancient culture that worshipped false gods. God had to judge the people of Zidon because of their worshipped of false gods.

The Bible mentions the people of Zidon as being enemies of Israel. They were usually allied and sympathetic toward other nations who were similar to their own culture. They have played a role in some of the attacks against God’s chosen people. Economics also played a large role with Zidon being united with other heathen nations.

The Bible condemns false religion and worship, and it also condemns an overabundance and emphasis on wealth. The people of Zidon pursued wealth and economic power and lived their lives for the purpose of financial gain. Even though money is an important part of life, God does not want people to rely on it more than him. God ultimately tells the prophet, Ezekiel, to speak against Zidon and to inform them that they are going to acknowledge him as Lord after he causes them to be destroyed. Since then Zidon has been rebuilt and is now called Sidon. It is a modern day city in Lebanon.

Bible References:

  • Genesis 10: 15-19 List the table of nations from the descendants of Noah. Canaan is listed as the father of Zidon.
  • Judges 10:6 Israel offends God by worshipping the gods of various nations including Zidon.
  • Judges 10:12 The Zidonians attacks Israel.
  • I King 17: 9 Elijah the prophet is commanded to go to a Zidon city called Zeraphath.
  • Ezra 3:7 the Israelites do business with the people of Zidon to gain materials for building the wall.
  • Jeremiah 47:4 God cuts off the power of the evil nations and Zidon’s ability to help them
  • .Ezekiel 28: 21-22 God tells Ezekiel to prophesy judgment against Zidon.
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Ammonites of the Old Testament

The Ammonites are a group consisting of people originating from Abraham’s family. Aside from that, they are also known as the troublemakers to the Israelites based on the Old Testament.  The Ammonites as a people are found on the Biblical Timeline beginning around 1500 BC.
Ammonites were a diverse group of individuals who lived in the Dead Sea’s far north eastern part. During the Biblical era, the Ammonites’ government was known as the Ammonites Kingdom. The said kingdom simply settled in the central part of Rabbah which was a city-state situated by the Jabbok River’s headwaters. Nowadays, Rabbah is  located in Jordanian city; Amman.

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Ruins of an Ammonite tower in Rujm Al-Malfouf in Amman

Rise of the Ammonites and the Moabites

According to the bible, the beginning of the Ammonite people goes a long way back to incestuous events that occurred between Lot together with his two daughters for Gomorrah and Sodom’s destruction. Eventually, the two daughters bore children whom were the ancestors of the strong unions; Ammonites and Moabites. The truth about Lot is that he had four daughters. Two were said to have been killed in Sodom. However, the Bible indicates that one of them actually lived and got married to the Horite Chief; Seir. A shocking revelation about the two unmarried daughters is that they actually had sexual affairs with their own father which led them to pregnancy.
Months later, the first daughter gave birth to a boy named Moab who is believed to be the father all Moabites. On the other hand, the other daughter who was younger gave birth to a boy as well which she named Ben-Ammi, the father of all Ammonites who is actually in the 1900 BC Biblical Timeline. Due to this fact, the Ammonites and the Moabites are actually the children of Lot.

Ammonites against the Israelites

One of the biggest similarities of the Moabites and the Ammonites is that they are against the Israelites. During the time of the Exodus, Israelites were highly forbidden by Ammonites on going through the territories of Ammon. According to a book called the Book of Judges, Ammonites were in great company of Eglon who is known as the king of all Moabites fighting against Israel. Attacks committed by Ammonites against the Israelite communities located in the eastern part of Jordan were actually the reason behind the alliance of tribes that were under Saul.

Biblical Mentions of the Ammonites

  • Ammonites, they are Lot’s Sons and the Ammon Descendants. (Genesis 19:38)
  •  From their rise to their fall, the Ammonites were strongly bonded with the Moabites tribe. (Judges 5:2)
  •  The Ammonites is the “Predatory Tribe” who moved from a place to another time after time unlike the Moabites tribe which was highly settled. (Deuteronomy 2:20 ; Genesis 14:5 ).
  •  Due to their hostility towards the Israelites, the Ammonites were given fearful judgments by the prophets. (Zephaniah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 49:1-6 ; Ezekiel 25:1-5 Ezekiel 25:10 ; Amos 1:13-15 )
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Moabites

Moabites were descendants of Moab, the son of Lot. They lived peacefully close to their ancestral home in the proximity of Zoar after they displaced the Emmi. The Moabites relations with Israelites can be confirmed by the linguistic proof of the Moabite or Mesha Stone. They are known to have close connections with the Canaanites, Alalekites, Edomites, Philistines and Sethites. Relations between Moabites and Israelites wavered after the invasion of Canaan. The Assassination of the Moabite King Eglon by a Benjamite prompted the Israelites to attack Moabites near the Jordan River, where thousands of them were killed.  You will find them on the Biblical Timeline Chart from 1500 BC forward.

The Moabites were known for their rich possessions and peaceful nature. In addition to this, they are known for their refusal to allow Israelites to pass through their territory when they were coming up from Egypt. They, however, did not raise a finger against Israelites for the more than 300 years they lived as neighbors. The Bible records that their friendliness prompted them to send their daughters to develop marital relations with Israelites against the law of God, whereby they enticed them into idolatry. Moabites also had friendly relations with Egyptians and were in full support of Egyptian protection of the border citadel that gave Egypt absolute control over Sinai.

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map of Moab’s location

The land of Moabites

Their territory of Moab was divided into three parts, one of them being the field of Moab. This portion was enclosed by natural fortification and was bounded by the gorge of Amon River by the North, the Dead Sea cliffs on the south and a semicircle of hills on the east and south. The next one was the Land Of Moab, which was a more open country that extended from the Amon north to the hills of Gilead. The third portion was the plains of Moab, a ‘sunken’ district in the tropical depths of the Jordan River.
Moabites were later driven south to river Amon by Amorites who had crossed over from the other side of Jordan River. The Bible records that the Amorites were being ruled by King Sihon at the time of attacking the Moabites.

What part of the Bible mentions the Moabites?

  • Numbers 21:13. A separation between Moabites and Amorites occurs by the river Amon.
  • Deuteronomy 2:9-11. The Moabites expelled the ancient Emims from their territory.
  • Numbers 21:28-30. The Moabites managed to possess many great cities
  •  Jeremiah 48:11. Moab was regarded as prosperous and stable, devoid of any element of captivity.
  • Numbers 21:26. Moabites were dispossessed of a vast part of their territories by the Amorites.
  • Numbers 22:3. Moab was alarmed by the huge population of the children of Israel.
  •  Numbers 22:1-25. Moabites together with Midian sent for Balaam to curse Israel
  • Deuteronomy 23:6. God forbade the children of Israel from seeking peace and prosperity with Moabites
  • 1 Samuel 14:47. The Moabites were subdued and harassed by Saul
  • 2 Kings 3:4. Mesha, the king of Moab, paid homage to the king of Israel with sheep and wool.
  • 2 Kings 3:21-24. Moabites were astoundingly deceived by the color of water and were gravely attacked by the Israelites.
  • Isaiah 16:13-14. God talked about the desolation of Moabites within three years
  • Jeremiah 27:3. Jeremiah prophesied that Moabites will be taken into captivity in Babylon
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Sons of Ishmael

The spread of Ishmael’s sons are mentioned on the Biblical Timeline Chart between 1500 and 1400 BC

Ishmael is the product of Abraham (then named Abram) and Sarah’s (then named Sarai) carnal plan to have children. Although God promised Abraham that he would not die childless, his wife felt that God had restrained her from having children and asked Abraham to have a child with her handmaid Hagar (Genesis 16:2). Years after Isaac was born, God-promised heir, Sarah asked Abraham to send Ishmael away so that he would not be heir with her son. Upon sending Ishmael away, God promised Abraham that He would make Ishmael a nation because he was Abraham’s seed (Genesis 21:13).
Ishmael was 137 when he died and had 12 sons. In descending order, they are Nebajoth, and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, and Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, Hadad and Tema, and Jetur, and Naphish and Kedmah. After their father’s death, the sons lived between Havilah and Shur. The Bible states that Ismael gave up the ghost and was buried with his people. This indicates that Ishmael died a believer in God.

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Ishmael
Ishmael and his mother Hagar in the desert

As for Ismael’s sons, little information is given on them. Although they dwelled in the Arabian Desert, Biblical and history scholars don’t believe they were alone. Of all the sons, the most is known about Nebajoth. Mentioned specifically by the Jewish historian Josephus, the Nabataeans lived in Nabatene. That’s the area between the Euphrates and the Red Sea. Because Josephus lived along side the Nabataeans, it’s believed his information was first hand. The Roman and Greek historians call this particular tribe Arabs because they spoke and wrote the early Arabic language.
The prophets Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel, make frequent mention of the Kadarites. They were known as the military power or nomads and was always in a conflict with the Assyrians. Isaiah speaks of her gifted arches and glory (Isaiah 21: 16-17). Little is known about the tribe of Adbeel because they lived the furthest west in Sinai.
Although historians wonder if the people of Mishma were the founders of the villages near Jebel Misma little is known about them. Since historians believe the Mibsam and Mishma intermarried with the Simeonites (I Chronicles 4:24-27) and became a separate entity in history, knowledge of this group is very limited. Identified with the Addyrian Adummatu people, Dumah is also known as a biblical city in Canaan (Joshua 15:52).
Uncovered by archeologists Winnett and Reed, graffiti texts mention the tribe Massa in connection with other nearby tribes. The text refers to war against Massa, Dedan and Nebayot. Although another evidence has not been found, the archeologist believes the tribes dwelled closed to each other at one time. Despite the fact that modern day Hadads are Christians, there were two groups known as the Hadads in biblical times. One group lived near the mountains northwest of Palmyra, and the other lied in Arabia. Even though the city of Temya is mentioned several times, the actual tribe is named in Job. As Job laments about his downfall’s, he mentions how the troops of Tema and Sheba hopes to plunder fortune (Job 6:19-20). Although all Ishmael’s sons, played a major role in Arabic history, little is known about his last three sons.