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Jerusalem Overview

Jerusalem is a land situated on a plateau between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on Islam, Christianity and Judaism, this nation was considered as holy. It is also claimed as both Palestine’s and Israel‘s capital. However, neither of these two countries’ claims were regarded internationally.

History of Jerusalem

There were two occasions when Jerusalem was destroyed, and it was seized at least 44 times throughout its history. As early as 4 BC, there were already residents in the city’s oldest sections. By 1538, the walls around Jerusalem were completed, which was during the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Presently, these walls became its defining icon, when Jerusalem was separated into four different quarters. These quarters that were built in the 19th century were intended for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and Armenian.

Based on the Holy Scriptures, King David conquered Jerusalem after defeating the Jebusites. It became a significant part of Israel where King Solomon ordered the construction of the city’s” First Temple“. However, there were no archeological proofs that the temple existed other than the accounts from the Bible.

‘Panoramic View over the Old City (Jerusalem)’


The holy city’s sobriquet was believed to have been a part of Jerusalem during the post-exilic era. The Septuagint conserved Jerusalem’s holiness, based on the Christian religion. In fact, the Christians claimed this as true, and the belief that Jerusalem was indeed a holy city was strengthened by the accounts that Jesus was crucified there. As for the Islam religion, Jerusalem was also considered as a holy city, along with Medina and Mecca. For instance, Jerusalem became the site of the first Qibla, which was the center of the Muslim prayer. Muhammad also went to Jerusalem during the Night Journey, where he ascended to heaven while he talked to God.

Ever since Jerusalem was noted as Israel’s capital during the reign of King David several thousands of years ago, it served a significant role among the Jews. For instance, the Western or Wailing Wall are the last remains of the holiest site of Judaism. The ancient temple was the center of Jewish prayer and the focus of Jewish veneration. It was there that the Jews have prayed for salvation.

On the other hand, the Arabs never considered Jerusalem as their central city. It was not even a provincial capital during the rule of the Muslims. However, there is one site in Jerusalem that is revered by the Muslims, which is the Al-Aqsa. This mosque was regarded as holy in Islam.

These are all reasons why the city of Jerusalem was considered as holy by several religions, even if it was only a small area that measured 0.9 kilometers. Among the different important sites in Jerusalem are the Western Wall, al-Aqsa Mosque, and Holy Sepulchre’s Church.

At present, Jerusalem serves as the center of the conflict that exists between the Palestinians and Israelis. In fact, the War of 1948 that involved the Arabs and Israelis caused the conquer of West Jerusalem. East Jerusalem and the Old City were both captured by Jordan, and was eventually annexed. However, the international community was against the annexation, and it refuses to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s or Palestine’s capital.

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