Various civilizations were on the rise during the peak of the Yemenite Kingdom, specifically in Mesopotamia, Egypt and several areas situated nearby the Mediterranean Sea. In fact, Yemen served as a widely recognized and significant trade link that connected these civilizations. Numerous goods were traded including incense, which was popular among pre-Islamic nations that took part in the trades.
The Minaean kingdom (1200 to 650 BC) became quite popular at that time because of its spices and frankincense. Another nation that was regarded as its great success and prosperity was Sheba, which was regarded as its efficient irrigation and farming system. A few other nations that were a part of the trade included Hadhramaut and the Qataban kingdoms. These two kingdoms eventually became a part of South Yemen.
Himyar was another pre-Islamic kingdom during that era, which was also joined in the trade. The kingdom was formed during the first century BC, and it ended in about 500 AD where it is located on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History. At that time, Sheba and Himyar had a significant impact on the Yemenite kingdom. These states were even coined as the Arabia Felix because of their prosperity that surpassed several nations.
Conquer of the Yemenite Kingdom
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During the first century BC, Egypt was invaded by Rome, and the Red Sea was turned into the new major route of commerce. Hence, the Arabian kingdoms in the southern part of the nation reached their decline as caravan routes were no longer widely recognized by traders in that era. Soon, the regimes in Yemen also became much weaker as the other trading kingdoms were no longer able to protect the nation from the invasion of the Abyssinians, which is now referred to as Ethiopia. The conquest began in the 4th century by the Abyssinian kingdom, which was followed by the Sassanids in the 6th century. By the 7th century, the Islamic era was on the rise, and this resulted in a significant part of the formation of the Yemeni people and the entire kingdom.
Beginning 525 AD, Yemen succumbed to an intense time of turmoil with the Abyssinians. It also lasted for about 50 years and was eventually followed by the Persians’ rule and control over Yemen. It was also during this period that there was an extensive conflict in terms of the tribal, religious and political aspects of the kingdom. The main purpose of the Persians was to seize the Romans by gaining victory over the Abyssinian army stationed in Yemen. At around 575 AD, the Abyssinians were finally defeated because of the powerful Persian army that reigned supreme over their opponents.
For over 70 years, the Yemenite kingdom was controlled by the Abyssinians. This was also during the time when Christianity was considered as a significant religion throughout the land. Also, the Abyssinians also ruled over some portions of the Arabia Felix.
However, the reign of Abyssinians came to an end when they finally left Yemen, along with the troops of Ayrit, who was the leader of the 70,000 army. The Himyarite ruler, being aware of his defeat, decided to drown himself when he knew that his reign was soon to reach its end. He was also the last ruler of the line of emperors by the Himyarites.
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