Julius Caesar was one of the greatest rulers of ancient Rome. He was born around 100 B.C. and he was assassinated in 44 B.C. during the Ides of March. Caesar lived a busy life when he was the consul of Rome and through his efforts he had had helped to shape Rome into an empire. After Caesar had passed away he did not have a legitimate heir to take his place. He adopted his sister’s grandson named Gaius Octavius who rose to the position of consul after he had died.
Gaius Octavius was given the name Emperor Augustus and he was the first of the Julian Emperors. Julian Emperors are the historical name of five Roman rulers who were the direct descendants of Julius Caesar. They included Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. They appear on the Biblical Timeline with world history between 44 BC and AD 68.
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When Caesar was alive he was a womanizer and he had many children. All of Caesar’s children were born through his many extramarital affairs and for this reason they were illegitimate. He had a daughter named Julia with his first wife Cornelia Cinnilla. Since she was a female she was not able to claim the throne. She had a grandchild that was born from his daughter Julia, but that child died shortly after being born.
Caesar had also married two other women named Pompeia and Calpurnia Pisonis, but they did not bear him any children. Caesar had an affair with the famous Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the child’s name was Caesarion (or little Caesar), but he would not allow this particular child to become a legitimate ruler of Rome. Octavius (later emperor Augustus) had Caesarion assassinated in his teenage years to keep him from trying to become the next ruler.
Emperor Augustus was the first ruler of the Julian Emperors and he governed Rome from 27 B.C. until his death in 14 A.D. Julius Caesar was his maternal great uncle and had named him his adopted son and heir. His reign contained the relative era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Both his adoptive surname, Caesar, and his title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of the Roman Empire for fourteen centuries after his death.
Tiberius became emperor of Rome in 14 A.D. and he ruled the empire until the time of his death in 37 A.D. When Emperor Augustus had passed away he left a will with specific instructions about keeping the descendants of Julius Caesar on the throne as emperor. Many of the senators and other ruling governors agreed to this demand. Many of Caesar’s descendants died before Tiberius’ reign had ended. Shortly before it was over Caesar’s descendant Caligula was designated the next ruler.
Emperor Caligula’s birth name was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Caligula was a childhood nickname that was used by Germanicus once he became emperor. When he was chosen to become the ruler of Rome he was to share this power with his cousin Tiberus Gemellus. Caligula ended up assassinating him so he could become the sole ruler of Rome. Emperor Caligula and his family were assassinated in 41 B.C. He died after ruling the empire for only three years.
Emperor Claudius became the next ruler and he was the uncle of Claudius. He was supported by the Praetorian Guard. He ended up marrying four women, but none of his children with these women succeeded him as emperor. During his marriage to Aggripina the Younger, he had adopted his nephew Nero so that he would become the next emperor.
Emperor Nero ruled Rome from 54 A.D. to 68 A.D. and he was not a well liked or respected ruler. He had committed suicide in 68 A.D. and he was the last Julian emperor.