Today’s Syria is much smaller than the Syria of Ancient times ‘Greater Syria’. It was an expanse just on the East side of the Mediterranean. Surrounded by the Arabian Desert and the Taurus Mountain range as such it was loved and hated at the same time as an intersection for both trade and war. In conjunction Greater, Syria had many different peoples and beliefs. All through history it has been the focus of diverse languages academically and confrontationally from the Middle East to the West. Syria can be found on the Bible Timeline around 1954 BC.
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The name was originated from the Greeks and Romans and most likely linked to the Babylonian ‘suri’. Arabs first spoke of Syria and an undetermined area around it as ‘Sham’ meaning ‘northern region,’ ‘the north’, ‘Syria’, or ‘Damascus’. The first known city in the area was Ebla (by today’s Idib, northern Syria). It established itself by trading along the Mesopotamian regions (Sumer, Assyria, Akkad along with the Hurrian and Hattian civilizations to the northwest of Asia Minor). There are also gifts from Pharaohs discovered from dig sites to suggest contact with Egypt as well. Along with that is on of the first dated writings from Syria as a trading arrangement with Vizier Ibrium from Elba and a mysterious nation Abarsal in 2300 BC. Today’s link to the Eblaite language is East Semitic also related to the Akkadian dialect.
Syria was taken over by the Persians sometime around 500 BC, then by the Greeks in 333 BC, the Romans in 64 AD. There they built a castle in Palmyra where it still has remains. Muslim Arabs took over Damascus in 635 AD, and the start of 1095, Syria was the focus of the Crusades, but the Christians were beaten back. The Turkish Ottoman Empire invaded in 1516 and reigned for four hundred years till 1920 with the close of World War I as the French took over Syria and Lebanon.
There is much more history involved with Syria here a brief list of events:
- 3000 Semites inhabited Syria
- 2400 Mesopotamian city in Nagar grew very strong
- 2100 Amorites traveled out of Arabian Peninsula and built several small regions
- 1500 Arameans influenced the Syrian dialect
- 1200 Syria was conquered by the Persians
- 332 Alexander the Great took over
- 300 – 64 the capital of Syria was Antioch
- 274 – 271 Ptolemy’s beat Antiochus I, Seleucid king that was attempting to enlarge hold on Syria and Anatolia
- 64 Pompey beat Seleucid Antiochus XIII and made Syria Roman governed
- 117 Hadrian ruled
- 262-266 Syria was once again under Roman rule
- 266 King Odenathus Roman monarch was killed; Zenobia Septimia, his wife, took over
- 270 Zenobia of Syria announced herself as the Queen of the East, fought nearby Roman cities and took over Egypt
- 636 Battle of Yamuk, Islamic troops, beat Byzantine army and took Syria
- 661 Umayyad Caliphate reign was started with Muawiva ibn Abi Sufyan
- 1098 & 1110 First Crusaders invaded Mara in Syria then Saida
- 1174-1183 Nureddin monarch of Syria passed away, Ayyubids took over and created structure and expansion
- 1202 Huge earthquake 30,000 deaths
- 1250 Egyptian Mamlukes conquered the majority of Syria
- 1300 Syria fought off the last of the Crusaders
- 1492 Jews traveled to Syria after being chased out of Spain
- 1496 Battle of Mari Dabik, Turks defeated Syria and started Ottoman Empire
- 1831 Egypt took over Syria and Joran
- 1840 Britain and Austria pushed Egypt out
- 1860 more than 25,000 Christians were martyred in Damascus – France deployed 5,000 men to Syria to end killings
- 1869 Suez Canal was built and took a lot of Syria’s trade advantage
For more of Syrian’s Timeline click here: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/syria/sytimeln.htm
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