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Artaxerxes of Persia

Artaxerxes I of Persia was the fifth king of the Achaemenid Dynasty. His father was the former King Xerxes and he ruled the Persian Empire from 465 B.C. to 425 B.C. which is where he appears on the Biblical Timeline Chart.  King Xerxes was murdered shortly before King Artaxerxes ascended the throne. The assassin who killed the former king claimed that King Artaxerxes oldest brother Darius told him to eliminate the king. King Artaxerxes then killed his brother and took over the throne.

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Most of King Artaxerxes rule was problem free and he didn’t make any major changes to the empire. The current system that was established by the former King Darius proved to be effective for governing the land. The people enjoyed prosperity and peace during his reign because he was able to keep control of the lands of Persia. Since he kept the system of government in place that was started by King Darius I, he was able to keep a vast network of trade and tribute flowing throughout the empire. He used the Phoenicians to control overseas trade routes to foreign lands, all of the provinces inside of the Persian Empire had to pay him an annual tribute and he established vast markets that covered the empire.

The religion of Zoroastrianism was popular in Persia and it still remained a viable worship system during the reign of King Artaxerxes. Other Persian gods were worshipped as well. One thing that all Persian kings did when they conquered a kingdom or empire is allowed the people to continue to worship their gods and King Artaxerxes continued this practice. He was also influenced by the gods of other nations including the god of the Jewish people. King Artaxerxes acknowledged God in the Bible though he might not have fully worshiped him.

Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of Persia

King Artaxerxes also had another name known as Longimanus because his right hand was longer than his left one. He had a wife named Damaspia who was popular among the people. King Artaxerxes was considered an extremely kind and good hearted ruler. He always appeared to be fair and just. The king could also deal effectively with his enemies such as Artabanus who conspired to take his throne. King Artaxerxes defeated this military commander in a personal duel in front of everybody.

One way his kindness was shown was through the decree that he made for the people of Jerusalem. He allowed them to go back to their kingdom and assisted them with their journey and the rebuilding of the temple. King Artaxerxes personally knew of Ezra and Nehemiah. He also returned the treasures that taken from the temple under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar.

Some historians trace the demise of the Persian Empire beginning with his reign. A few provinces within his empire tried to rebel, but they did not succeed. They state that the uprisings that he experienced during his time in power had planted seeds for future revolts and rebellions and it didn’t matter if he put an end to them. Greece was a kingdom that revolted against Persia during his reign and they would come back to defeat the Persians at a future date. The Greeks also encouraged the Egyptians to revolt as well. On the outer fringes of the Persian Empire, the people were conspiring to rid themselves of Persian domination. Once again King Artaxerxes kept control of the rebellious regions but he didn’t completely or wasn’t able to stop the people from conspiring against Persia. King Artaxerxes died in 425 B.C.

Biblical References:
Ezra 7 King Artaxerxes gives the decree for the Jewish people to return home and he also informs the rest of his empire to accommodate Jews with their return journey and the rebuilding of the temple.

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63 thoughts on “Artaxerxes of Persia

  1. Thanks in support of sharing such a good opinion, paragraph is nice, thats why
    i have read it fully

  2. Hi, I thought it was King Darius who told the Jewish people to rebuild their city. Wasn’t it finish in the six year of the reign in Darius?

    1. Yes it was completed in the sixth year of the reign of king Darius. If you read Ezra 6:14 it mentions all the kings who decreed for the temple to be rebuilt: Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes. In Ezra 6:15, then it mentions the temple was completed in the sixth year of king Darius. Even then the temple wasn’t fully complete even though the building itself was fully erected. The temple needed the articles taken from Babylon and an Official Priest – in Chapter 7 the temple was fully completed when Ezra was released to return to Jerusalem with the articles of the temple that were taken by Babylon. This last portion of completion was decreed by king Artaxerxes. God Bless You.

    2. He gave the decree to build the wall not the city.

    3. King Cyrus decreed the rebuilt. This was Darius ll, who was King Araxerxea’s son.

  3. Thank you! This has been truly a Blessing to me! Grace and peace be multiplied unto you through JESUS CHRIST!

  4. King Cyrus was the Persian Kind who issued the decree to rebuild Jerusalem, Ezra 1:1-2, true to the words of Prophet Isaiah c80 years even before Cyrus was born.

    1. You are correct and also Isaiah spoke of Cyrus in Isa. 44-45. No doubt about who issued the decree to return and build the city and the temple. The others did not issue the decree but just searched it out and found that Cyrus made the decree. Good Work.

    2. Cyrus’ decree was to rebuild “the house is the LORD” so the temple not Jerusalem. Only Artaxerxes Longimanus decreed to have the city rebuilt and that is not detailed in Ezra but in Nehemiah. Every decree in Ezra is pertaining to the temple, Nehemiah asks Artaxerxes if he can go and rebuild the city and it is granted to him Nehemiah 2:1-8

  5. About 80 years before Cyrus was born, Prophet Isaiah prophesied that King Cyrus would issue a decree to rebuild the city of Jerusalem and the foundations of its temple laid (Isaiah 44:28). King Cyrus was born, and conquered Babylon in 539 BC. That year, King Cyrus issued his decree to rebuild Jerusalem and have the Jewish captives return to Jerusalem (Ezra 1:1-4).

    1. without going into detail here, i believe the internal evidence of the book of Isaiah suggests that these words concerning Cyrus were not written by Isaiah, but a contemporary of Cryrus. a number of scholars have 2 or 3 authors for Isaiah. after long study i agree.

      1. I am pleased to say what you did. MOST Christians take every word in the “KJV” bible was inspired by God and it is inerrant and infallible.

        That is simply a LIE. There are many things that are NOT true in the bible; because of changes in it, sense it was written. IN other words, there is NO bible on earth, in ANY language, that is inerrant and infallible. That absolute goes to ONLY Jesus the “Christ”, who is God Almighty and inerrant and infallible.

        Thus any one that uses ANY bible as their absolute truth is making satan VERY happy. Rather…

        …The wise person will always pray sincerely for Jesus to give them wisdom, understanding and truth. Then and ONLY then will one begin to KNOW the truth and stear away from the lies. It took me 75 yrs to realize that. And I have learned more truth in it in 14 yrs than I had learned in 75 yrs.

        Praise Jesus.

        1. So you’re saying that Billy Graham one of the best and most incredible preachers of our day and age is in hell now for preaching that same Bible and leading millions to the Lord?? lol!!! You are so delusional dude

  6. Hello, please explain the timeline of Xerxers, Darius and Artaxerxers further. From your article above Darius killed his father and ascended the throne. For how long please? Then Artaxerxers killed his brother and became king. Ezra 4:24 explains that the work was stopped by Artaxerxers and it remained so until the reign of King Darius. So am getting confused because it seems Darius came after the reign of Artaxerxers. Thank you.

    1. Exactly the question I have. It appears to me that there were two Artexerxeses, one before and the other after Darius?

    2. Cyrus the Great, 2nd King of Persia,
      Darius, 3rd king of Persia 522-486 B.C.
      Xerxes l. 4th king of Persia 486-465 bc
      Artaxerxes l, 5th king of Persia 465-424
      Xerxes ll, 6th king of Persia 424-424 B.C.
      Darius ll, 8th king of Persia 423-405 B.C.

      1. Thank you I was trying to figure this out!

      2. No disrespect, but I disagree with your chart:

        I believe the following chart is more correct, but I could be wrong. If I find out that is, I will beg forgiveness and change it:

        Achaemenid Dynasty

        559-530- Cyrus the Great
        529-522 – Cambyses (son)
        522 – Smerdis (Bardiya) (brother)
        521-486 – Darius I, the Great
        485-465 – Xerxes I (son) (Ahasuerus)
        464-424 – Artaxerxes I, Longimanus (son)
        424 – Xerxes II (son)
        424 – Sogdianus (brother)
        423-405 – Darius II, Nothus (brother)
        404-359 – Artaxerxes II, Mnemon (son)
        358-338 – Artaxerxes III (Ochus) (son)
        337-336 – Artaxerxes IV ( Arses) (son)
        335-330 – Darius III (Codomannus) (great-grandson of Darius II)

        Again, I will change this if I find out it is wrong.

        Thanks for understand sister in Jesus.

        1. Hi,
          Overall, I appreciate your page very much, however, it appears you have confused the wives of Artaxerxes I – whose wife was Damaspia, and Artaxerxes II whose wife was Stateira.

          1. Thank you Kristina, agreed and we have made the correction.

        2. no offence taken…i was just naming main kings….. your time line is correct

          1. Thank you Charlen.

            And may Jesus richly bless you and yours always..

  7. Would you tell me where Esther fit into the timeline and which Xerxes was king. Was he a good king

    1. Hi Ginny, please see the article When Is Esther On the Bible Timeline. You can also check which has a search function where you can search for articles on Xerxes or any other topic you wish. Thank you!

    2. Xerxes l was king for 486-465 B.C. and the husband of Esther….he was a good I think….also the movie 300 was about his reign…

  8. Nehemiah , in the 20th year of Artaxexes was given the permission to return to Jerusalem and rebuild her walls. That date marked the beginning of the 70 week prophecy in Daniel chapter 9 that stated the “leader” that would come…Jesus…would come after 69 weeks. In prophecy a day stand for a year of actual time and true enough. 69 weeks (483 years later) in the year 29 CE, Jesus was baptized and anointed as the Christ. At the half of the 70th week (after a 3 1/2 year ministry) he caused sacrifice ( animal) to cease by fulfilling their pattern in his own sacrificial death….and 37 years later the Romans “brought the city to ruin”.

    1. In Isaiah 44:28 The sentence starts with verse 24, “Thus saith the LORD…”. Verse 28 is the end of the sentence, you can’t take v28 just on it’s own. So it is God speaking OF Cyrus, then God speaks To Jerusalem that He(God) will cause the building of both the city and the temple, through the ones that He will choose later. Cyrus decreed the building of the TEMPLE, not the city. Here is the verse: “Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia …and he hath charged me to build him an HOUSE in Jerusalem, which is in Judah.” 2 Chronicles 36:23
      Nehemiah went because the city and wall and gates were in ruins. Here’s the verse: “[Nehemiah] said unto the king, …why should not my countenance be sad, when the CITY, the place of my fathers’ sepulchres, lieth waste, and the GATES thereof are consumed with fire? If it please the king, …that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, that I may build IT(city). Nehemiah 3-5.
      Also, Gabriel told Daniel the 483 years was to rebuild the city, streets, and wall. “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build JERUSALEM …the STREET shall be built again, and the WALL, even in troublous times.” Daniel 9:25

    2. I still prefer AD.

    3. By the way, Jesus was baptized on or near the Passover of 26 AD, at the start of John’s Ministry. But you did get the date for Jesus’s ministry right, as well as the Halfway point of the 70th week, at which Our Passover, Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, was Sacrificed. He will come again soon to resume the 70th week, then it will end bringing about the Millenial Kingdom.

  9. Good morning.
    in Ezra 6 I believe, it says that the temple was completed in the 6 yr of Darius but in Ezra 8 it’s give an account for the ppl return back to Jerusalem with Ezra in the 7th year of artaxerxes. now if the 6th yr of the reign of darius was 516 bc, did artaxerxes became king that same yr 516BC.
    im trying to understand the 70 weeks prophecy of Daniel by using a sabbatical calendar to figure out if every big event that took place from the time that Cyrus give the decree in 559 bc happened in a jubilee yr

  10. There are two different time gaps in Daniel 9:26 that need to be taken into consideration if we are to understand the full prophetic cluster of Daniel 9:24-27, which is ALL about the 490 year indictment of Daniel 9:24. The first time gap is clearly visible as that period between when Messiah would be cut off (Jesus’ crucifixion) and the destruction of the city and sanctuary in 70 AD. That time gap was roughly 37 years long. The second time gap has been roughly 1948 years now since 70 AD, and it is not easily discovered, but that time gap is after the word “sanctuary” in Daniel 9:26. We can discern this by searching out the three timing clues God placed in the last part of the verse: the “flood” clue, the “end of the war” clue, and the “desolations” clue. ALL three of these clues are connected to the coming of the LORD in three different prophetic clusters elsewhere. The “flood” clue speaks of the Isaiah 59:19-20 prophecy, and the enemy there speaks of the armies that will surround Jerusalem for the Zechariah 14:1-5 battle, which will be the final battle Jerusalem will ever experience. Jesus will come in verse five, and will then provide safety in Jerusalem (verse 11). This speaks of the “end of the war” clue as well. The “desolations” clue of Daniel 9:26 speaks of the prophetic cluster of Isaiah 62:1-5. In 62:4 we see that from that point of Zion will no longer be termed Desolate (which means that it will be until that point.) The coming of the LORD is not extremely clear, but if we compare the “salvation” of 62:1 with 62:11 we will come to realize that Jesus’ presence is mentioned in verse one. His coming in Zechariah 14:5 / Isaiah 59:20 will lead to the blessings in Zion seen in Isaiah 62:1-5. Some have attempted to make Daniel 9:27 mere history, but God was hiding a mystery in the Bible, and the clues I mentioned push the end of Daniel 9:26 and verse 27 at least 1948 years (70 AD to 2018) after the destruction of the sanctuary in Daniel 9:26. Also, we must consider that the prophecy of 2 Thessalonians 2:4 remains to be fulfilled still, and a new temple must be rebuilt for that to happen.

    1. I have read Daniel 9:24-27 MANY times over and over. I have prayed and studied and read MANY beliefs concerning these verses. ALL different I am sad to say.

      Through prayer, I believe that there are two “gaps” also. But I find that FEW believe that. Nevertheless, I believe it. So your reply caught my eye. Thank you.

      Sadly, I disagree with the timelines of the “gaps” that you gave. I could be dead wrong; but I do believe that the two gaps are: (1) between the first* 49 yrs (7 7’s) and then the 434 yrs (62 7’s). (2) Then a HUGE “gap” that leads us to the last 7 yrs.

      * The first gap (unknown time) is, I believe, when the rebuilding of the Holy City, The Temple and the Wall was stopped. The rebuilding resumes when the King of Persia finds a scroll that DID give the Jews the right to rebuild the Holy City, Temple and protective wall. I believe the second gap (unknown time) begins just AFTER Jesus is resurrected. And we are IN that gap as of this writing, awaiting for that last 7 years of Hell on earth.

      Which are the LAST 7 yrs this world will exist, as we know it, AKA: The “Great Tribulation”. Mathew 24:21

      Which will last for exactly 7 yrs, in two contiguous 3.5 yr periods each. Where the first 3.5 yrs will be Jesus’ wrath poured out WITH mercy on his children for our sins and the apostasy of our churches (7 Trumpet wraths); and the 2nd 3.5 yrs, where Jesus pours out His wrath with OUT mercy (7 Bowls or Vials) on ALL that took part in the persecution of Jesus’ children (saints, TRUE “Jews”) during the first 3.5 yrs. “For they will beg to die, but death will not come!”. Revelation 9:6

      Finally: I believe that Jesus will come down (He does NOT touch this earth) and meets the dead in Christ (being resurrected) and the living in Christ; IN the air (AKA: “The Rapture”). Revelation 20:6

      And this will take place precisely between the two halves of the last 7 yrs; when the “sacrifice for sin” will end forever. This is what the 7th Trumpet is all about. 1 Thessalonians 4: 16 and 17; 1 Corinthians 15: 52; Revelation 22:11

      Note: The word “trump” in the scriptures above, I believe, means “The last (7th) Trumpet” during the GT.

      Again, I could be dead wrong. But I have prayed my heart out over this. Unless Jesus leads me to another belief, I shall hold the above to be fact absolute.

      In the meantime, I will continue to pray my heart out that Jesus removes ANY error I do, say or think. Also praying that He gives me the wisdom to discern the truth from man-made lies; which abounds, I believe, in EVERY entity known on earth. BAR NONE!

      Thanks again, dear brother in Jesus.

      1. Man that was deep, I would like to learn more from you. Do you have a website or blog?

        1. Hi Martin,

          Thanks for the kind words.

          Sorry I have neither a “website” nor a “blog”. I used to host a Christian chatroom on Pal-talk. But that is no more.

          I would be happy to talk to you but I know of NO way for us to communicate except for this forum.

          ‘So You may wish to ask questions here and I will promptly answer them. Promise.

          Thanks again dear brother in Christ.


      2. I came across this discussion and I found it to be very interesting just because I am writing a book in this subject; I agree with what you said; but in my understanding there is just one gap; the reason God separated the seven sevens, (49 years) from the sixty-two ‘sevens(434 years) is to emphasises the accuracy, perfection and certainty of what he is revealing will come to pass; he is giving the proof of his perfection; here is what after praying and researching came to my understanding; there is no gap whatsoever at all between the seven weeks and the 62 weeks; God is only highlighting the first seven sevens for few reasons;If in Dan 9:24, God has decided that it will be seventy weeks to achieve 6 objectives, to resolve Israel’s rebellion against him, he meant what he said; in God’s calendar and timing not even a dot or a comma will be taken out or added.
        Here are the reasons why:
        Fact number 1 about the first seven weeks:These first seven weeks, which are 49 prophetic years, belong to the whole set of the 70 weeks.This may allude to the hindrance that this mission would soffer throughout the whole project. We have all documented in the books of Esdras and Nehemiah the opposisions the Jews had to fulfil their mission; it was necessary three decrees and on warrant, and took approximately 100 years to complete the whole project from the layer of the tample’s foundation to the rebuilding of the wall. Nehemiah 1.Daniel was aware this would occur because the angel told him that the city would “be rebuilt, with plaza and moat, but it will be in times of distress.
        After praying, this is the understanding that came to me:the first seven weeks felt in the year 490 Bc; this is interesting because in this year, Assiria decided to invade Greece and was defeated; Greece started flexing its muscles to fulfil its destiny in history as the world superpower exactly as God revealed to Daniel,(Dan. 8:21). 154 years later Alexander the Great was born in(336 b.c. and his kingdom lasted 13 years only, until 323c; we need to understand one thing; an empire does not born overnight, it is like a sowed seed, it takes some time to grow and become a big tree to produce its fruits, (Dan 4).The history will flow according what has been written in the book of truth in heaven.
        Here is the most important fact about the first group of sevens and why God highlighted them: God opened my eyes and I could clearly see the mystery inside this set of seven weeks; multiply 7 x 7 and the result are 49 years; the year in which this set of seven weeks falls is the year 490 Bc, and the whole set of the 70 weeks are 490 years; amazingly these are all multiple of seven! Multiple of any number are infinite as the list of all multiples of 7 is infinite; but here is the secret! Seven is the number of perfection; God is showing us his infinite perfection and the precision of his plans for Israel, the church and for the whole universe. With God there is no miscalculation in math, no grammatical error, this is why he warned us not to add or take out from his words not even a comma or dot. We find the number seven and it’s multiples throughout the bible.
        This manuscript is being updated for publication by the author.
        Pastor Josué De Oliveira.
        My Email is:

  11. Artificially putting in time gaps makes for a very convoluted reading of 470 years. Daniel said “Desolations are decreed.” Jesus did this when He said to Israel “Your house is left to you desolate!” and strode out of the temple. There is no time gap. in the first half of the 70th week ( after 3 and 1/2 years Jesus was crucified after making this decree and saying He would destroy the temple. The next 3 and half years the Gospel continued to go out to Jerusalem, and the 70 years given for Israel was up and the gospel went out into all the world. ) in that generation as Jesus prophesied the temple was destroyed and Jesus new Temple, His church, made up of Jew and Gentile took centre stage. The Old was gone the New had come

    1. The problem I have with the 490 yrs ending with the resurrection of Jesus as some say; or at the death of Steven as some say; or at the end of the destruction of the Holy City and the Temple in 70 AD as some say; is as follows:

      In Daniel 9:26 it says, “And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.” Note:

      1. It says AFTER the crucifixion (and of course the resurrection) that the prince (MOST scholars believe that is Titus from Rome) destroyed the Holy City and the Temple. But this was in 70 AD. And even history confirms that.

      2. All total, there has only been 69 sevens (483 yrs) so far.

      3. Thus…. there is still one more week of years to come.

      But BEFORE this week can be fulfilled Daniel 9:27 says,

      “And he shall confirm (fulfill) the covenant with many for one week (of years): and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation (end of the world), and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate (non believers).

      1. The word confirm is a poor KJV translation. It should be fulfill; for it is the fulfillment of the end of the world.

      2. “He shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease” HALF way through the last 7 yrs,

      3. But: The “sacrifice” can NOT end, until Jesus Raptures “His” church. And that will NOT happen until the end of the world; because there have been billions of people “saved” (due to the “sacrifice” of Jesus) since AD 70. Other wise, NO one could have been saved after that time; because the sacrifice for the atonement of sin would have ceased in AD 70!

      Could I be wrong? ABSOLUTELY!

      Could you my brother in Jesus be wrong? ABSOLUTELY!

      Could we BOTH be wrong? ABSOLUTELY.

      This goes for EVERY mortal person on this earth; for not one of us is innerant and infallible. ONLY Jesus carries that quintessential distinctive honor.

      So I must hold that something is bad wrong to assume that the 70 weeks of years (totaling 490 yrs) are contiguous. If so, WHY would it be broken down into 3 time periods: 49 ( 7-7’s); 434 yrs (62-7’s) and 7 years (1-7)?

      Why not say “70 weeks” (490 yrs) and then tell what would happen during these 70 weeks contiguously? Again, WHY break them up into 3 distinctive time periods? AND……

      Why would Jesus cease the “sacrifice” (remember He IS the “sacrificial Lamb of God”) ‘circa 1900 yrs ago?

      Again, I could be dead wrong. But if I am, I will stay confused for the rest of my life; because I have read this MANY times and prayed my heart out. And this because what I was taught and heard; says thing that simply did NOT make sense to me.

      Thanks again for your post dear brother in Jesus.

      1. You better be careful, the path you’re on leads where you don’t want to go. Keep searching, you’ll find whats necessary I think.

        1. Oh believe me I have.

          And I now believe that I “KNOW” what is going to happen after much prayer to Jesus about it and other things. Sadly, MOST will not agree. But they didn’t agree with Him either. So I am in good company. Praise His Holy Name

          Thanks for the kind post brother Christian.

  12. Are Ahasuerus and Xerses I one in the same? If so, why is he called Ahasuerus in the book of Esther?

    1. Yes I believe they are the same. However, these names of the Medes and Persian Kings; have caused a raucous of debates and fights for over 2500 yrs.

      No one really knows as far as I can tell.

    2. I believe they are the same.

      But there is NO credible evidence on earth about ANY of the Persian Kings. For they have been argued and debated for over 2500 yrs.

  13. The Elyphantine papyri mention the high priest Johanan of the book of Ezra during the last years of Darius II.

    Considering this the Darius of Ezra would be Darius II.

    Artaxerxes after Darius during Ezra’s appearance: Artaxerxes II.
    Artaxerxes (Aramaic) and Ahasuerus (Hebrew) before Darius: Artaxerxes I
    Kores (Cyrus): grandson of Cyrus the great and probably his namesake: Xerxes

    Ahasuerus in the book of Esther: probably Artaxerxes I

    1. Additionally:

      Kores (Cyrus) in the book of Daniel: Xerxes.
      The Darius before him: Darius I.

      Considering Daniel 6:29 the Daniel of chapters 1-5 possibly is to a different person then the Daniel of Daniel 6.

      1. The Daniel of chapters 1-5 possibly refers to another person then the Daniel of Daniel 6. Daniel 6:29 suggests this.

    2. Further indications for Xerxes’ identification in Ezra 1:

      Xerxes changed his title from king of the Babylonians/Chaldeans to king of the Persians and Medes, which new title is used with Koresh in Ezra 1 (the same is true for Koresh in the book of Daniel).

      The daric coin mentioned in Ezra 2:69 (ESV) didn’t exist yet during the reign of Cyrus the Great, but did during the reign of Xerxes.

    3. Further indication for Darius I’s identification in the book of Daniel:

      Darius I devided his kingdom into 20 tax owing satrapies.
      The 120 parts Darius in Daniel 6:2 devided his kingdom in can be translated as 20 tax owing satrapies. This because an alternative meaning of 100 is tax.

    4. Additional indications for Darius I’s identification in the book of Daniel are:

      Darius I did build in the old Persian capital, but not in the old Persian one. Which indicates he was a Mede.

      At Darius I’s first year the distance to the destruction of the Jerusalem temple was about 62 years away. Likely this is were the “about 62 years” in Daniel 6:1 refers to.

      1. Darius I did build in the old Median capital, but not in the old Persian one. Which indicates he was a Mede.

      2. At Darius I’s first year the destruction of the Jerusalem temple was about 62 years away. Likely this is were the “about 62 years” in Daniel 6:1 refers to.

        1. Thus “about 62” phrase doesn’t refer to Darius’ own age.

        2. Meaning the “about 62 years” phrase in Daniel 6:1 doesn’t refer to Darius’ own age. But instead to the distance to the distruction of the Jerusalem temple.

    5. Xerxes changed his title from king of the Babylonians/Chaldeans to king of the Persians and Medes. This title shift between Darius I and Xerxes also is visible in the book of Daniel.

      1. This suggests the Darius and Koresh/Cyrus of the book of Daniel are Darius I and Xerxes.

  14. Additionally:

    Artaxerxes in the book of Nehemiah: Artaxerxes I

    1. Nehemiah 2:6 suggests Esther.

  15. April 20, 2021
    Can anyone comment on this new (amazing, if true) theory by C.J. Lovik on his YouTube channel, Rock Island Books, under the title: End Times – Daniel UNSEALED! (2021 Great Tribulation), @ 30:00 min into the video.
    C.J. Puts forth a fascinating theory about the time lapse mystery in the Daniel 9 prophecy. There is no evidence in scripture that God stopped the clock but there is a pattern of God multiplying and adding time to the clock (such as Numbers 14:34)!
    C.J. Uses this, ‘a year for a day’ multiplication pattern, and the decree by Artaxerxes in 457 BC to calculate when Daniel’s prophecy was to begin, thus we can know the end date, July 27, 2028.
    C.J. Like everyone else is humble about the possibility of being wrong.

    What does everyone think about C.J.’s theory?

  16. When it comes to “Kings” in the bible; there are many different assumptions of who was and who was not.. I have studied and researched it for a LONG time and there are many debates about it. That have gone on for over 1,000 yrs of years.

    Some call Ahasuerus was Xerxes; some say that Xerxes II were the same. And on and on, etc, etc and ETC. To date I see NO expertise consensus anywhere.

    This same scenario is also with the debates about Daniel 9: 24-27. For over 2,000 years their is NO consensus about the 7 X 70 yrs tenure. And the notion that “the decree was given in 457 BC”l is proof of how man can not agree.

    So I simply stopped trying to understand it and/or discuss it; and took it to prayer with Jesus; and I believe He caused me to understand it (where everything makes since). But no one would believe it, so I simply will not discuss or debate it.

    May Jesus richly bless you and yours always.

    carl Dixon

  17. Regarding Daniel 9:
    In Nehemiah 2:5,6 it is recorded that in the month of Nisan in the 20th year of king Artaxerxes, Artaxerxes commanded Nehemiah to rebuild Jerusalem.
    If Artaxerxes came to the throne after Tishri 465 BC, the first partial year could have been considered a “regnal year”. Then his first year would have started in the fall of 464 BC and his 20th in the fall of 445 BC.
    March 8, 444 BC could have been in the month of Nisan in the 20th year of Artaxerxes.
    March 8, 444 BC + 173,880 (= 69 x 7 x 360) days = April 1, 33 AD
    This is the traditional date of Good Friday according to the Roman church.

  18. Pastor Bishop,

    Thanks for giving what you believe. Since I never debate or argue, it is best to reply what you said.

    May Jesus bless you and yours always.

    1. I meant to say, “best not to reply, on any subject; since I never debate nor argue.


    From Isaiah 44 and 45 it is clear that Cyrus was appointed by God to rebuild the city of Jerusalem, including the temple. Cyrus was prophesied to say about Jerusalem “you shall be built” and of the temple “your foundation shall be laid’ (44.28). Note also, ‘He shall build my city’ (45.13). A city in those days, and even up to more recent times, consisted of a variety of buildings, streets, open spaces and a wall. In fact a city was incomplete without a wall, so the conclusion that Cyrus’s decree excluded the wall just because it is not specifically mentioned is not valid. His edict clearly authorised the construction of the whole city. It is also clear that the people did start to rebuild the walls long before Nehemiah’s time (Ezra 4.12,13,16). This is confirmed by Nehemiah’s reaction in Nehemiah 1.3. If the destruction of the walls he referred to was that done by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC, then why was Nehemiah so shocked 141 years later to learn that the wall was in such a condition – had he only just heard? This is evidence that the walls had been at least partly rebuilt in the days of Zerubbabel.

    In Daniel 9 not only was the 10 x 7 of weeks coming to a close but also the clear impression is given that the 70 x 7 of weeks was about to begin. If the command of v25 refers to that of Artaxerxes in 445 BC, that would have been 93 years later, well beyond Daniel’s time, which seems out of keeping with the imminence and continuity of the message Daniel received. Ezra 6.14 indicates that following Cyrus’s decree the process of rebuilding began but was completed in stages under Darius and Artaxerxes, with Darius referring back to the original decree of Cyrus (Ezra 6.2/3). All subsequent efforts to rebuild were the direct result of this first decree.

    An accuracy of days, or even weeks or months is not required in Daniel’s prophecy but only a fulfilment in years. It is therefore unnecessary to try to pinpoint the actual day, whether it be the day the Lord rode into Jerusalem or any other day subsequent to the Lord’s birth. Arguments for a fulfilment of the 483 years on a particular day have involved the manipulation of numbers/dates which have led to wrong conclusions. It has been shown that there are errors in Robert Anderson’s rather complex explanation. For example, he mixes the Julian calendar with the Gregorian calendar when calculating leap years which results in 116 leap years instead of 1191.

    The employment of so called ‘prophetic years’ seems just a tool to make the prophecy fit. If this method is correct then why is it not applied to other time periods in scripture? eg Exodus 12.40, Galatians 3.16, Genesis 15.13, Acts 7.6, 1 Kings 6.1 and Ezekiel 4.5. It is clear that in the beginning a year was 360 days (Genesis 7.11, 7.24-8.5) – many civilizations observed this; and also towards the end of time a year will again be 360 days (Rev 11.2/3, 12.6, 13.5). But these are actual years not ‘prophetic’ years. Between these points a year has been clearly established as 365.24 days (the Julian calendar adopted a 365 day year with leap years in 45 BC). Various explanations are given for this change in the earth’s orbit of the sun (see Genesis 1.14) which was perhaps a gradual one over time, eg the catastrophic effects of the flood. Similarly there are a number of catastrophic events in Revelation through which God could bring the year back to its original, intended length. However, if the explanation offered in this article is correct, the length of the year is not important as the chart below indicates.

    The first 49 years could be considered as follows2. From the decree of Cyrus in 538 BC (Ezra 1.1) to the completion of the temple in 516 BC (Ezra 6.15) was 23 years (inclusive), during the days of Zerubbabel. There was then a period of 58 years in which there was no restoration activity (the book of Esther fits in here). From the arrival of Ezra in 458 BC (Ezra 7.8) to the return of Nehemiah to Babylon in 433 BC (Neh 13.6) was 26 years (inclusive). Adding these two periods of time together (23 + 26) gives 49 years. These two distinct periods are referred to in Nehemiah 12.26 and 12.47 as ‘the days of Zerubbabel’ and ‘the days of Nehemiah the governor and of Ezra the priest, the scribe’. The significance of these four points in time is seen in that the years are specified in scripture for each and in two cases the exact day is given. In between there were 58 years of inactivity and spiritual decline (Ezra 9.1). This leaves 62 ‘weeks’ or 434 years from 433 BC (inclusive) to the birth of Christ (v25 ‘until Messiah the Prince’ ). His coming into the world is the obvious point of fulfilment not some later date in His life. Note Daniel 9.26, ‘after the sixty two weeks Messiah shall be cut off’, does not necessarily imply ‘immediately after’. This time period, the life of Christ, amounted to about 33 years.

    Furthermore it is surely significant and appropriate that the angel Gabriel who announced the prophecy in Daniel 9 should also announce its fulfilment in Luke 1.26. He is only mentioned by name four times in scripture, twice in Daniel and twice in Luke. Yet this plain fact seems to have been overlooked by many. We can also link this with the visit of the wise men who clearly had some knowledge of the coming Messiah as found in the records of Babylonia preserved from Daniel’s time. They were intelligent and influential men who had authority within the Parthian empire. Their understanding of the timing and fulfilment of Daniel’s prophecy and the journey they made under the guidance of God gives strong confirmation that the 69 ‘weeks’ culminated in the birth of Christ.

    Whatever the correct and intended explanation of this prophecy it remains true that the 483 years have been fulfilled and the final 7 years await fulfilment. A major conclusion and relevance for us today is to recognise the importance of accepting all scripture at face value and not subjecting it to interference from outside sources or dependence on them. The bible is self explanatory; it stands alone, God has written it that way so that its truths can be accessed by anyone indwelt by the Holy Spirit and possessing a sound translation. Extra-biblical sources can often be used to fine tune our understanding but not to lead us to a conclusion about scripture that is not found within itself.

    1 Jones F N The Chronology of the Old Testament (2005) pages 224 -226.
    2 Schlegel T T Know Therefore and Understand (2005) pages 26/27

    1. Colin Lancashire,

      Kind Sir, your long data, around many dates, etc; are confusing to many Christians. IE: Because, there are 3 major “Calendars”! The “Julian” calendar, the “Gregorian” calendar and the “Jubilee” Calendar, from the old “Israelites”. And, it has 12 months, anf 13 every ‘circa 5 years.

      And they are called it “Adar and Adar II (13th month)”. But, each month had 30 days. And that fits in their Motto…”Time, Times and Half time”. Meaning each time is 360 days (but sometime it’s the same, in years, yet will be the same motto. So it means, 1,260 days or 1,260 years!

      But some times, they also use this: “42 months; when using years. Then also, they use this: “3 and 1/2 yrs”. Yet the 4, are ALL the same. And that causes many Bible readers; to NOT knowing it. And they assume things; that are NOT true!

      Sad, but OH so True! May Jesus have mercy. And May He bless you Colin Lancashire and yours always. AMEN!

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