It was in 71 AD (where it is listed on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History) when the Roman Army began to arrive in Scotland and established a powerful empire that lasted until the year 213. According to historians, this period in Scotland’s history was complex in nature. Although the Roman Empire had a significant impact to Scotland’s history during the invasion, there were some reports gathered that Rome lacked complete control of the land and its people.
Roman Empire Began Its Invasion of Scotland
Based on historical studies, the Roman Army remained in Scotland for 40 years, yet they lacked total jurisdiction of the land during that time. It was during this complex period that there was an insufficient archaeological evidence to prove Rome’s full control and influence on the Scottish culture.
When the Romans arrived at the Britannia province, they named the land that was found on its northern part as Caledonia. They introduced their culture to the Scottish people, yet the original settlers in that part of Scotland did not entirely adopt the Romans’ way of life.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
One of the most renowned military leaders in Rome was Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who set foot in Britain in 78 AD, as he was to serve as the land’s new governor. After remaining in Britain for two years, he successfully erected a fort with the help of his army at Trimontium. Archeologists also discovered quite a number of solid evidences of the Romans’ influence in the land as Roman pottery, coins, armor, and remains from the army were unearthed. Historians have reported that Agricola and his armies have reached River Taus or River Tay, so they could construct forts in the said location.
Battle of Mons Graupius
Under the leadership of Calgacus, Agricola and the Roman Army headed off to attack the Caledonians, which is known in history as the Battle of Mons Graupius. Along with his fleet, Agricola prepared for the battle with only as much as 20,000 men while the Caledonian Army was made up of 30,000 warriors. Evidently, the Romans were outnumbered, yet they still attempted to advance to their opponents in this battle.
After a long and dreadful battle, the Romans were badly impacted and suffered from a tremendous loss. It was also noted that about two-thirds of the Caledonian warriors managed to escape to the Scottish highlands and marshes. Their main purpose was to stop Agricola and his men from ruling over the island.
Historians gave an estimate of the casualties after the war. According to research, at least 10,000 Caledonian soldiers died while there were only 360 Roman soldiers that were found to be dead. This historic battle was believed to have taken place in the Grampian Mounth, which faced the North Sea.
Meanwhile, Agricola wasn’t merely contented with his army’s victorious attempts at the battle. He also gained control of several hostages from natives and tribes in Caledonia. There were also studies that pointed out how he erected another fort near Inverness, which was the result of his arrival to Britain’s northern coast.