The first record of the Persians comes from an Assyrian inscription from c. 844 BC that calls them the Parsu (Parsuash, Parsumash) During this time and for the next couple of centuries Persia paid tribute to the Assyrians.
In Mesopotamia, the rise of Assyrian power began in 900 BC where it can be found on the Bible Timeline Chart, and it lasted until about 609 BC. It is during the time of this powerful empire that the Assyrians gained a high position among various other countries in the world including Armenia, Egypt and Babylonia. Thus, the Neo-Assyrian power held dominance in North Africa, East Mediterranean, Asia Minor and Caucasus. However, it was in 8th century BC when Tiglath Pileser made reforms that Assyria was able to strengthen its power.
The rise of Assyrian power came to be after the Middle Assyrian Empire and the Middle Assyrian Period, which were during 10th century BC and 14th century BC, respectively. Several scholars considered this empire as one of the earliest in history because of extensive improvements and advancements that were introduced during this time. Moreover, the empire had two different official languages at that point, which were the Aramaic and Akkadian.
In 1076 BC, Tiglath-Pileser died. This resulted in a decline of Assyria for the following 150 years. Hence, Near East, Mediterranean, Balkan regions, North Africa and Caucasus entered a dark phase. The people involved in mass movements and upheavals that further brought the empire down. Amid all these negative events, Assyria still managed to maintain its solid stature thanks to it’s tough warriors, which were considered as among the world’s finest. Although there were difficulties, Assyria still kept its good position among other rivals such as Babylonia, Persia, Urartu, Media, Egypt, Phrygia, Elam and Babylonia.
By 911 BC, Assyria’s period of melancholy and isolation came to an end when a new king was crowned. The king was named Adad-nirari II. His main goal was to strengthen and improve the areas under Assyrian control. In addition, the Hurrian and Aramean forces were conquered and eventually deported to various other places in the world.
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The great Adadinirari II attacked and created many parts of the empire, and he also defeated Babylonia’s Shamash-mudammiq. Hence, this allowed him to annex a huge portion of the land, and he also had further success during the period of Nabu-shuma-ukin’s reign. The next great ruler of Assyria was Tukulti-Ninurta II, which was in 891 BC. He was also responsible for consolidating the position of Assyria while expanding territories up the Zargos Mountains and Asia Minor.
In 883 to 859 BC, the next king was known as Ashurnasirpal II, who was famous for being part of various expansion programs in Assyria. Initially, he conquered those who are dwelling in the North until Nairi; which is found just near the Lake Van. Afterwards, Neo Hittites and Arameans were conquered, and the harsh rule of the king ended up in a revolt that lasted for two days. Ashurnasirpal II and his army won, and this enabled him to advance other places such as Asia Minor, Aram and Mediterranean to strengthen his reign.
The said Assyrian ruler also had some campaigns in modern-day Iraq’s Zagros Mountains. This helped him stop a revolt that was anti-Assyrians, which were led by the Gutians ad Lullubi. The king soon moved the location of Assyria to Kalhu, and it was here where various temples, palaces and other significant structures were built.
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