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Jeroboam Old Testament King

King Jeroboam’s role in the history of ancient Israel is very important because his rule took place as a result of King Solomon‘s disobedience. Jeroboam made some significant changes to the worship and lifestyle of Israel during his reign. His actions set off a chain of events that had made God angry with the people of Israel for many years. According to Ussher’s chronology of the Old Testament Timeline his reign started circa 990 BC. He is the first king of Divided Israel.
Jeroboam’s Early Days

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Jeroboam was born to Nabat, and he grew up to become a respected and well-liked member of his community. His name means “the people contend” or “he pleads the people cause” and his name perfectly defined the course of his life. By the time, he was old enough to work he was recognized by King Solomon as a young man with great leadership and organizational skills.

He was also popular well respected by the people of Israel. He was also a natural born leader. King Solomon noticed the positive way that people responded to Jeroboam, and he noticed how blessed he was in the work that he performed. After Solomon realized that Jeroboam was a good manager he promoted him to the position Chief Laborer.

God uses Jeroboam against King Solomon

Jeroboam_I,First_King_Divided_Isreal
Ahijah’s prophecy to Jeroboam

There was a prophet in Israel during the time of King Solomon and Jeroboam, and his name was Ahijah. One day Jeroboam was on his way to Jerusalem, and Ahijah met up with him during his journey. The Prophet and King were alone. He informed Jeroboam that he was sent from God to let him know that he would become the next king of Israel. God would prosper his royal line as long as he kept the Lord’s commandments and walked in his ways. He went on to explain that he would take the kingdom from Solomon because he handled leading his people to worship false gods. Ahijah also told Jeroboam that these events wouldn’t take place until King Solomon passed away.

Eventually, King Solomon found out about God’s appointment of Jeroboam, and he decided to have him killed. Jeroboam had no choice but to flee to Egypt to save his life. He remained in Egypt up until the time Solomon died.

Jeroboam Returns from Egypt

Jeroboam came back to Israel after King Solomon had passed away. He found out that his son Rehoboam was going to become the next ruler. He led some of the people of Israel to Rehoboam’s palace and asked him to be a kinder ruler than King Solomon. Rehoboam denied their request after he consulted with a group of advisors who were his age. Then ten of the twelve tribes of Israel rebelled against him. The Bible says they did this because God initiated Rehoboam’s negative response (see 1 Kings 12: 15 – 16)

Jeroboam starts the Gold Calf Cult

Jeroboam eventually becomes King of Israel, and King Rehoboam was prepared to fight against him. God intervened and told both armies not to fight because they were brothers. King Jeroboam then decided to start another religion in Israel. He did this to stop his people from going up to Solomon’s Temple to offer sacrifices to the Lord. He believed that if the people performed sacrifices to God they would turn their allegiance back to God and reunite with Rehoboam. To retain his power he created the worship of the Golden Calf Cult.

Jeroboam’s Legacy

Jeroboam consistently fought against Judah as long as he lived. He had continued the practice of the Golden Calf Cult up until the time of his demise. The Golden Calf Cult is the one thing that started the people of Israel and Judah to worship false gods and demons. The worship of the false gods in Israel and Judah lasted for a very long time, and it was almost impossible to get the people to stop completely worshipping in this manner.

Bible References:

  • 1 Kings 11: 26 Jeroboam is born to Nabat.
    1 Kings 11: 27, 28 Jeroboam recognized as a leader by the people and promoted by King Solomon.
    1 Kings 11: 29 – 39 The prophet Abijah tell Jeroboam that he will be the king of Israel.
    1 Kings 11: 40 Jeroboam escapes to Egypt to save his life from King Solomon.
    1 Kings 12: 15 – 16 Jeroboam returns to Israel after King Solomon dies.
    1 Kings 12: 1-14 Rehoboam denies the people request for mercy and the people revolt.
    1 Kings12:20 Jeroboam is made the king of rebellious tribes of Israel.
    1 Kings 12: 25 – 33 Jeroboam starts the Golden Calf Cult as a means to control his people.
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Shalmanezer III

Shalmanezer III was one of the great kings of Assyria. He became a king after his father, Ashurnasirpal II, died. The name Shalmaneser means “the God Shulmanu is pre-eminent”. He ruled Assyria during 859 BC – 824 BC which is where he appears on the Old Testament Timeline along with the Biblical Kings of Judah and Israel. Shalmanezer stood as the King of Assyria for a very long time and it was said to be a constant series of campaigns against the Babylonians, Mesopotamians, Syrians, the nations of Urartu and Kizzuwadna. He was able to lead his army through the Lake Van, Taurus Mountains, the Hittites of Carchemish, and the Kingdoms of Aram, Damascus and Hamath.

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Shalmanezer III

The Battle of Qarqar

On 853 BC King Shalmaneser III led the army of Assyria to battle against the allied army of the twelve kings at Qarqar in northwestern Syria. This allied force of the twelve kings was headed by Hadadezer (also known as Benhadad II) of Damascus and the King of Israel, Ahad. This battle was fought during 854 BC – 846 BC and is known as Assyrian Conquest of Syria. King Shalmaneser III conquered Syria and most of Palestine, but he was forced to withdraw his Armies because of having suffered heavy casualties. Ultimately, the invasion that he spearheaded was a failure. Today, located in the British Museum, there is an Assyrian monument that tells how the Battle of Qarqar ends. The monument is called: The Kurkh Monolith.

The Black Obelisk of Shalmanezer III

The Black Obelisk is an important artifact from Shalmanezer’s reign because it describes Shalmanezer’s military achievements. Henry Layard, an archeologist, found the black obelisk when he was excavating the site of Kalhu (an ancient Assyrian capital) in 1846. During the civil war, it was erected as a public monument. The black obelisk records thirty-one years of campaigns. Shalmanezer III, just like other Assyrian kings, collected exotic animals and plant to express his power. He had animals like rhinoceros, elephants, monkeys and camels. In 841 BC, King Shalmanezer III received a great tribute from many kings that symbolized submissiveness. The first to pay tribute to him were the kings of Israel and Judah, followed by the kings of Tyre, Sidon, and Jehu. He had also left more royal inscriptions and annals than any other Assyrian Kings.

The Black Obelisk expressed what the Jehu King of Israel had offered to Shalmanezer III in 841 BC. He also carved his image and name into a huge cliff just beside the so-called Dog River in 835 BC. Shalmanezer III had numerous buildings. His capital was Nimrud (ancient Kalhu) where he built gigantic walls, temples, and gates like the great Ziggurat and Fort Shalmaneser. He gave his forces to his commander-in-chief, Dayyan-Ashur because of old age. Within six years, his son, Ashur-danin-pal revolted against him.

Eventually, he had another son who rose to power and defeated his brother. Shortly after Shalmaneser III died of old age, his son took over as King Shamshi-Adad V. The reign of Shalmaneser III is significant to the Bible because of the Biblical figures that are on two of his monuments. About the Battle of Qarqar, the names Jehu son of Omri on the Black Obelisk and King Ahab on Kurk Monolith are in the bible under 1 Kings and 2 Kings of the old testament.

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Jehu Righteous King

Jehu (name meaning him who exists) was the son of Jehoshaphat often also commonly mentioned as son of Nimshi, his grandfather. Perhaps because Nimshi was more well-known. Ultimately, God chose Jehu to be king because he knew that he could trust this god fearing man to lead the people in true worship. He appears on the Old Testament Timeline during the reign of the Kings of the Divided Kingdom.

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Jehu

False Worship in Israel

When the kingdom of Israel split in half the northern kingdom of Israel was brought into false worship by a man named King Jeroboam. This king started the Golden Calf cult and turned the hearts of many Israelites from God. Since that time, pagan worship had corrupted many of God’s people for a long period. King Ahab and his Phoenician wife made things worse by introducing Baal worship into the land of Israel. God could no longer tolerate this idolatry, and he authorized Jehu to become king to put an end to this problem.

Jehu is Anointed King

Elisha was a prophet of God who served under Elijah another great prophet of God. Elijah was taken up to heaven, and Elisha became the next leader of the prophets of Israel during the period when King Ahab and Jezebel were alive. After Ahab had died his son, Ahaziah came to power in Israel. Ahaziah was just as corrupt as his father. One day Elisha told one of his prophets to go and find Jehu and privately anoint him king. The prophet who anointed Jehu king wasn’t named in the Bible. While the unnamed prophet was telling Jehu about his newfound position, he also told him that he must eliminate the rest of Ahab’s lineage. Once Jehu completed this task, he would then become the undisputed king of Israel.

Jehu Fulfills God’s Judgment

Jehu gathers some of his soldiers, and they ride off to find King Ahaziah and King Joram to wipe out the rest of Ahab’s lineage. Jehu ends up throwing King Joram’s body onto Naboth’s land. Naboth was a godly man that Jezebel killed to get his land for her husband, King Ahab. So God took his revenge against Ahab and Jezebel by killing their son Joram on the same piece of land. Jehu then continued pursuing Ahaziah whom he wounded. Ahaziah escaped to Megiddo and died there.

The Death of Jezebel

Jehu then goes after Jezebel. He sees her sitting out on a balcony of her palace waiting for him, and he has a few eunuchs throw her body down. She hits the wall before hitting the ground, and she is trampled on by horses. Jehu goes in to eat and tells some of his servants to bury her body but when they go to perform this task they only find her skull, feet, and hands.

The Rest of Jehu’s Reign

King Jehu spent the rest of his reign wiping out the remaining members of Ahab’s lineage and he also wiped out all of the people who were associated with this evil king. King Jehu was able to rid Israel of Baal worship by eliminating all of the prophets of this false god. The only thing that he didn’t do was to get rid of the Golden Calf worship that was started by Jeroboam when the kingdom first split. Jehu ruled the land for 28 years before he passed away.

Biblical References

  •  2 Kings 9:1-13 Jehu is anointed king, and God gives him the task of eliminating the rest of Ahab’s family line.
  • 2 Kings 9:14-29 King Ahaziah and King Joram are killed by Jehu.
  • 2 Kings, 9 Jezebel is killed by Jehu.
  • 2 Kings 10 Jehu wiped out Baal worship, but he doesn’t do away with the Golden Calf religion.
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Cushan Rishathaim and the Bible

The book of Judges highlights the time that Israel was led by men and women who were God’s living representatives on the Earth.They are on the Biblical Timeline starting at 1446 BC The people who were chosen by God were usually prophets and prophetesses. They also were usually selected by God to be a deliverer of the Israeli people from their enemies.

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Israelites were held in captivity at various times all throughout the 150 years that the judges ruled the land

One of the reasons why God put the Israelis into captivity to their enemies and to godless nations was to punish them for their sins. The Israeli people constantly worshipped other God’s and followed other people’s abominable practices. These two reasons help to explain why the Israelites were held in captivity at various times all throughout the 150 years that the judges ruled the land.

When the people crossed over into the Promise Land, God purposely didn’t remove all of their enemies. Judges 2:23 states that God left some of the pagan peoples in the land to test Israel’s faithfulness to him. This is another reason why Israel had to constantly contend with cruel nations. Judges 3:8-10 tells about how Israel was placed into servitude of Cushan-Rishathaim the king of Aram-Naharam. His kingdom was established in or near ancient Mesopotamia.

Back in Judges 3:5-7 the Israeli people were intermarrying with various pagan nations. Since they were forming unions with these people, they also started to worship their gods. This is when God had enough and delivered his people over to Cushan-Rishathaim for eight years. Once they were in captivity to this king they cried out to God to free them. The Bible doesn’t go into a lot of detail about how this king treated the people, but it must not have been too pleasant since they were literally crying out to the Lord to saved them. He answered their cry and sent Othniel. God’s spirit came upon Othniel and he became the first judge in the land of Israel.

Othniel was the younger brother of Caleb who fought alongside Moses and Joshua as the people were entering into the Promised Land. Othniel was previously used by Caleb to defeat the people that lived in Kiriath-Sepher. He did this in order to marry Caleb’s daughter Aksah. Othniel went out to battle and proved to be victorious.

Caleb had given him his daughter in marriage. This incident took place in Judges 1:12-13. God generally chooses people who worship him to lead his people. Judging from what little the Bible has to say about Otheniel’s life and past accomplishments he was the perfect choice to lead the people of Israel from captivity. Othniel gathered an army and went to war against Cushan-Rishathaim and defeated him. God had given him the victory by delivering Cushan-Rishathaim into his hands. After Othniel defeated Cushan-Rishathaim Israel experienced peace for at least 40 years until he died.

  • Biblical References to Cushan Rishathaim Judges 3:5-7 Israel disappoints God by intermarrying with heathen nations.
  • Judges 3:8 God uses Cushan-Rishathaim to oppress his people for about eight years.
  • Judges 3:9 the people cry out for freedom from this oppression.
  • Judges 3:10 Othniel was chosen by God to deliver his people from Cushan-Rishathaim.
  • Judges 3:10 Othniel is given the victory by God over Cushan-Rishathaim.
  • Judges 3:11 the land has peace for 40 years up until the time that Rishathaim dies.
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Zidon The Principal Seaport

Zidon is an ancient Phoenician city that has been in existence for over 3000 years. The Phoenicians used the city as one of their major seaports, and it was an important place of economic trade and commerce. According to the Book of Genesis, the Canaanites established the people and city of Zidon. Keep in mind that Canaan was the son of Ham and the grandson of Noah. Canaan then produced a child named Zidon and he is apparently the father of the Zidonian people. Zidon as a principal seaport of the ancient world is found on the Bible Timeline around 1400 BC. According to the Bible, many of the ancient cultures of the Old Testament were established by people who had the same name as a particular ethnic group.

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Sidon Sea Castle, built by the Crusaders in AD 1228

The city of Zidon is mentioned in different scriptures within the Old Testament. Many of the references about Zidon reveals that the people there were Mariners, seafarers, traders and the worshippers of many gods. Since they were descendants of the Canaanites, they also believed in a lot of their deities. Even though this is the case, they primarily worshiped Baal, Ashtoreth and the fish-god Dagon.

The ancient Phoenician city of Tyre is supposed to have been started by members of Zidon. Once Tyre became an established seaport an instant rivalry formed between both of the cities. They competed with one another to dominate the trade in the sea. Though Zidon competed hard against Tyre to gain prominence as the major economic center for the Phoenicians, Tyre managed to become the most important seaport. Zidon wasn’t far behind of them and constantly challenged their position as a major economic power of the ancient world. Zidon specialized in producing glass and purple dye.

Religion is one of the most important themes throughout the Bible. The type of gods that each ancient culture believed in is mentioned by the authors of each book. One reason God has inspired these writers to mention ancient cultures and their deities is to warn people today about worshipping false gods. Zidon was an ancient culture that worshipped false gods. God had to judge the people of Zidon because of their worshipped of false gods.

The Bible mentions the people of Zidon as being enemies of Israel. They were usually allied and sympathetic toward other nations who were similar to their own culture. They have played a role in some of the attacks against God’s chosen people. Economics also played a large role with Zidon being united with other heathen nations.

The Bible condemns false religion and worship, and it also condemns an overabundance and emphasis on wealth. The people of Zidon pursued wealth and economic power and lived their lives for the purpose of financial gain. Even though money is an important part of life, God does not want people to rely on it more than him. God ultimately tells the prophet, Ezekiel, to speak against Zidon and to inform them that they are going to acknowledge him as Lord after he causes them to be destroyed. Since then Zidon has been rebuilt and is now called Sidon. It is a modern day city in Lebanon.

Bible References:

  • Genesis 10: 15-19 List the table of nations from the descendants of Noah. Canaan is listed as the father of Zidon.
  • Judges 10:6 Israel offends God by worshipping the gods of various nations including Zidon.
  • Judges 10:12 The Zidonians attacks Israel.
  • I King 17: 9 Elijah the prophet is commanded to go to a Zidon city called Zeraphath.
  • Ezra 3:7 the Israelites do business with the people of Zidon to gain materials for building the wall.
  • Jeremiah 47:4 God cuts off the power of the evil nations and Zidon’s ability to help them
  • .Ezekiel 28: 21-22 God tells Ezekiel to prophesy judgment against Zidon.
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Ammonites of the Old Testament

The Ammonites are a group consisting of people originating from Abraham’s family. Aside from that, they are also known as the troublemakers to the Israelites based on the Old Testament.  The Ammonites as a people are found on the Biblical Timeline beginning around 1500 BC.
Ammonites were a diverse group of individuals who lived in the Dead Sea’s far north eastern part. During the Biblical era, the Ammonites’ government was known as the Ammonites Kingdom. The said kingdom simply settled in the central part of Rabbah which was a city-state situated by the Jabbok River’s headwaters. Nowadays, Rabbah is  located in Jordanian city; Amman.

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Ruins of an Ammonite tower in Rujm Al-Malfouf in Amman

Rise of the Ammonites and the Moabites

According to the bible, the beginning of the Ammonite people goes a long way back to incestuous events that occurred between Lot together with his two daughters for Gomorrah and Sodom’s destruction. Eventually, the two daughters bore children whom were the ancestors of the strong unions; Ammonites and Moabites. The truth about Lot is that he had four daughters. Two were said to have been killed in Sodom. However, the Bible indicates that one of them actually lived and got married to the Horite Chief; Seir. A shocking revelation about the two unmarried daughters is that they actually had sexual affairs with their own father which led them to pregnancy.
Months later, the first daughter gave birth to a boy named Moab who is believed to be the father all Moabites. On the other hand, the other daughter who was younger gave birth to a boy as well which she named Ben-Ammi, the father of all Ammonites who is actually in the 1900 BC Biblical Timeline. Due to this fact, the Ammonites and the Moabites are actually the children of Lot.

Ammonites against the Israelites

One of the biggest similarities of the Moabites and the Ammonites is that they are against the Israelites. During the time of the Exodus, Israelites were highly forbidden by Ammonites on going through the territories of Ammon. According to a book called the Book of Judges, Ammonites were in great company of Eglon who is known as the king of all Moabites fighting against Israel. Attacks committed by Ammonites against the Israelite communities located in the eastern part of Jordan were actually the reason behind the alliance of tribes that were under Saul.

Biblical Mentions of the Ammonites

  • Ammonites, they are Lot’s Sons and the Ammon Descendants. (Genesis 19:38)
  •  From their rise to their fall, the Ammonites were strongly bonded with the Moabites tribe. (Judges 5:2)
  •  The Ammonites is the “Predatory Tribe” who moved from a place to another time after time unlike the Moabites tribe which was highly settled. (Deuteronomy 2:20 ; Genesis 14:5 ).
  •  Due to their hostility towards the Israelites, the Ammonites were given fearful judgments by the prophets. (Zephaniah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 49:1-6 ; Ezekiel 25:1-5 Ezekiel 25:10 ; Amos 1:13-15 )
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Moabites

Moabites were descendants of Moab, the son of Lot. They lived peacefully close to their ancestral home in the proximity of Zoar after they displaced the Emmi. The Moabites relations with Israelites can be confirmed by the linguistic proof of the Moabite or Mesha Stone. They are known to have close connections with the Canaanites, Alalekites, Edomites, Philistines and Sethites. Relations between Moabites and Israelites wavered after the invasion of Canaan. The Assassination of the Moabite King Eglon by a Benjamite prompted the Israelites to attack Moabites near the Jordan River, where thousands of them were killed.  You will find them on the Biblical Timeline Chart from 1500 BC forward.

The Moabites were known for their rich possessions and peaceful nature. In addition to this, they are known for their refusal to allow Israelites to pass through their territory when they were coming up from Egypt. They, however, did not raise a finger against Israelites for the more than 300 years they lived as neighbors. The Bible records that their friendliness prompted them to send their daughters to develop marital relations with Israelites against the law of God, whereby they enticed them into idolatry. Moabites also had friendly relations with Egyptians and were in full support of Egyptian protection of the border citadel that gave Egypt absolute control over Sinai.

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map of Moab’s location

The land of Moabites

Their territory of Moab was divided into three parts, one of them being the field of Moab. This portion was enclosed by natural fortification and was bounded by the gorge of Amon River by the North, the Dead Sea cliffs on the south and a semicircle of hills on the east and south. The next one was the Land Of Moab, which was a more open country that extended from the Amon north to the hills of Gilead. The third portion was the plains of Moab, a ‘sunken’ district in the tropical depths of the Jordan River.
Moabites were later driven south to river Amon by Amorites who had crossed over from the other side of Jordan River. The Bible records that the Amorites were being ruled by King Sihon at the time of attacking the Moabites.

What part of the Bible mentions the Moabites?

  • Numbers 21:13. A separation between Moabites and Amorites occurs by the river Amon.
  • Deuteronomy 2:9-11. The Moabites expelled the ancient Emims from their territory.
  • Numbers 21:28-30. The Moabites managed to possess many great cities
  •  Jeremiah 48:11. Moab was regarded as prosperous and stable, devoid of any element of captivity.
  • Numbers 21:26. Moabites were dispossessed of a vast part of their territories by the Amorites.
  • Numbers 22:3. Moab was alarmed by the huge population of the children of Israel.
  •  Numbers 22:1-25. Moabites together with Midian sent for Balaam to curse Israel
  • Deuteronomy 23:6. God forbade the children of Israel from seeking peace and prosperity with Moabites
  • 1 Samuel 14:47. The Moabites were subdued and harassed by Saul
  • 2 Kings 3:4. Mesha, the king of Moab, paid homage to the king of Israel with sheep and wool.
  • 2 Kings 3:21-24. Moabites were astoundingly deceived by the color of water and were gravely attacked by the Israelites.
  • Isaiah 16:13-14. God talked about the desolation of Moabites within three years
  • Jeremiah 27:3. Jeremiah prophesied that Moabites will be taken into captivity in Babylon
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Thutmose I Egypt and the Bible

Thutmose I was the 18th-dynasty king of ancient Egypt whose reign spanned from 1493-c. 1482 BC which is where he appears on the Bible Timeline. Thutmose was also known as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis. He came to power after the reign of Amenhotep I who reigned from 1525 BC – 1504 BC. Biblical references of Thutmose I can particularly be found in the Psalms of David. The length of his reign is uncertain with nine years being the highest attested number of years.

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Family

Thutmose I is believed to have been the son of his predecessor Amenhotep I who was otherwise known as Amenophis. His mother was Semiseneb and his chief wife and consort was Queen Ahmose. He is known to have fathered five children. They were Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Amenmose, Wadjmose, and Nefrubity.

Thutmose_I, Egyptian_Pharoah
Thutmose I

Contradictory Information

Some seem to be of the opinion that Thutmose was not the son of Amenhotep, but rather the son of an unknown military man and a mother whose name was Seniseneb. The name Seniseneb is documented on the “Accession Announcement” of Turi, vice king of Nubia. There are also schools of thought that Thutmose I was the alter ego of King David of Israel.

It is said that Thutmose I, being the son of a non-royal mother may have strengthened his claim to the throne by marrying Queen Ahmose who was perhaps of relation to his predecessor Amenhotep. Other views are that he might have come to power after serving with Amenhotep as coregent for an unspecified period. This view is supported by a chapel found at Thebes. In a letter to the viceroy of Nubia, he communicated his new titulary and coronation on his accession day.

Achievements

The achievements of Thutmose I the 18th king of Egypt included expanding the Egyptian empire in Nubia (now known as Sudan) and also penetrating deep into Syria. He accomplished this by defeating the Syrians and quelling a rebellion in Nubia. Following his conquest of Nubia, he sought to provide an easier means of traveling upstream from Egypt to Nubia by building a canal. Some monuments of note that he built under his architect Ineni were temples, obelisks, pylons shrines and statues which were located at the temple complex of Karnak.

During his Reign

During his second reign Thutmose I, led a river bourne expedition beyond the boundaries his predecessor crossed and went deep into Nubia. One reason for targeting this area was to access its rich gold deposits. This gold source was greatly exploited during the 18th dynasty (1539 – 1292 BCE).

Another main reason for the venture was that the hostile Kushite kingdom, centered near the Third Cataract, had been a major problem for Egypt during the 17th dynasty (c. 1630 – 1540 BCE).  Inscriptions which can be found along the way indicates that he went past the Fourth Nile Cataract and set up a new boundary at Kurgus. The biographies of two Upper Egyptians, who were among the forces that made this campaign, bear testimonies of the venture.

After conquering Nubia, Thutmose went on to penetrate the Euphrates River in the vicinity of Carchemish in Syria. He was in pursuit of the Hyksos, Asiatic rulers who had recently dominated Egypt. One of the text in Nubia records that while, before the Syrian foray, Thutmose claimed the Euphrates as his border. There is no other existing evidence that there were earlier victorious campaigns, but the Nubian text indicates that a there had already been a deep penetration of Syria.

Once in Egypt Thutmose I carried out a thorough renovation of the Middle Kingdom (1938-c. 1630 BCE) temple of Amon at Thebes. An enclosure wall was erected and two pylons were erected at the western end with a small pillared hall in between. He added two obelisks in front of the outer pylon and created the axial temple, which became a standard for the New Kingdom (1539-1075 BCE).

Thutmose appointed two crown princes who predeceased him. One was appointed a commander of the armies and was sent to Memphis, located close to Cairo. This became a military operations center in the New Kingdom and later kings followed Thutmose example and assigned their crowned princes to Memphis where they were trained in the military arts.

Tomb/Burial Site

Thutmose I died in the year 1492BC and was buried at Valley of the Kings. He is said to be the first king to cut his tomb in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes possibly as a means of obtaining greater security for it. He expanded the cemetery workers’ village at Dayr al-Madinah in western Thebes. He was also responsible for the completion of the organization of the necropolis staff that was started by Amenhotep his predecessor. His tomb bears the reference number KV38 and was discovered during the years 1859 – 1946 by the Egyptologist Victor Loret.

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Egypt Amenhotep and the Bible

Amenhotep was the son of another Egyptian pharaoh named Amhose I. He came into power during the early part of the 15th century B.C. which is where he is found on the Biblical Timeline. Many speculate that he was a child when he took the throne. Scholars and historians cannot pinpoint the exact time of his reign because they are not able to accurately calculate the dates.

Historical records also point out the fact that his mother acted in his place as a ruler because of his extremely young age. When he was of age he married his sister Amhose-Meritamon. Amenhotep is also credited with subduing the Syrians early in his reign and as a result of his efforts he created an era of peace and prosperity which benefited all of the Egyptians.

During Amenhotep’s reign, he constructed many temples, public buildings and housing. The kingdom of Egypt wasn’t in any immediate threat from outside forces and invaders. Amenhotep had time to focus his efforts on building the Egyptian economy and infrastructure. He created the city which became known as modern day Luxor.

The Nile River was also used to expand trade within the area and to increase the revenues of the kingdom under his reign. He built a temple known as Malkata and the famous temple of Amun. He was also credited with creating artworks that would influence the New Kingdom and for creating two important literary pieces. One of these works was known as the Book of what is in the Underworld and this book influenced later Egyptian funeral rights. During his reign, the Ebers Papyrus was created and this was the foremost source of information for ancient Egyptian medical practices. Amenhotep supposedly had died from an unknown disease.

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Shortly after his death he was deified by some Egyptians and became the patron god of Deir el Medina which was the home to many artisans who worked in the Valley of the Kings. Amenhotep also had cultic following that sprang up once he was dead. He tried to make his tomb obscure in order to keep it hidden from grave robbers. His body was mummified and it was kept in perfect condition for many centuries. Once the New Kingdom had arrived his body was mummified once again in order to continue  to preserve its excellent condition.

Amenhotep also had a son that died early in childhood and since he didn’t have another heir to succeed his throne the position was given to a military commander named Thutmose. The reason why Thutmose had access to the throne was due to his marriage to Amenhotep’s sister.

During the 18th dynasty of rulers in Egypt, there were four pharaohs who were given the name of Amenhotep. Ahmose I started the line of succeeding rulers that had the name of Amenhotep and Amenhotep I was the succeeded his rule in 1524 B.C. Amenhotep II started his rule in 1424 B.C. and Amenhotep III took the throne in 1388 B.C. When the name Amenhotep is used by itself it usually indicates the first Amenhotep ruler during the 18th dynasty.

Amenhotep ruled Egypt around the time of the Jewish Exodus from the region which was in 1514-1493 B.C. The actual date of the Exodus is unknown by many scholars and historians, but many authorities place the event between the years of 1514 to 1212 B.C. The actual date of the Jewish Exodus cannot be agreed upon by historians. No one is sure. Amenhotep is listed as one of a few pharaohs from this time period who resisted God and Moses by not letting the Israelites go free.

The historical records of Amenhotep do not mention anything about the historical events of the Exodus. Keep in mind that many Egyptian priests or record keepers would probably not record the events surrounding the Exodus because it would have brought shame on Amenhotep and his dynasty. Kings, rulers and dynasties might have had bad events during their time in power but many of them would probably have been written out of its history because everyone tries to make their time in power one of greatness.  The fact that Amenhotep had a first born son that died at an early age could be proof of that he was the pharaoh of the Exodus, but once again this is purely speculative. Amenhotep is considered a popular pharaoh who emerged from the Middle Kingdom era.

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China, Animal Sacrifice in

China has been known for many things in the present world including the fact that the country is now developing to be a world recognized economy.

However,  China also has a great history that dates back to emperor Huang Di, the yellow emperor. The history of animal sacrifice occurs in China about 1500 BC although it could also have started much earlier since there were bones found inscribed with divination with the oldest dating about 3500 years.  It is placed on the Bible World History Timeline at 1500 BC.

The Chinese rites of passage and rituals included animal sacrifices like many other cultural practices in the Middle East. However, animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC were also sometimes accompanied by human sacrifices during burials, a fact that could be used to show the uniqueness of the Chinese animal sacrifices during this period.

Animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC was presided over by high priests who are credited with being the very first people to begin a state in the world. The Shang offered animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC as a way of honoring the ancestors and natural spirits who gave them power and determined how the Shang state would be governed. The animal sacrifices were sometimes accompanied with human sacrifices for the same reasons. It is at this time that urban craftsmen in China started making great products such as ceramics and their bronze castings were at their best.

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Yellow Emperor

The high priests were the rulers of the state they are credited to have started and they referred to themselves as the sons of Heaven. It is worth mentioning that although animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC were conducted in China, there is only the mention that the sacrifices were to appease the ancestors and spirits and not a god. Some believe that at this time the Chinese were religious although a god to them may not have existed and believed that their powers came from the ancestors and spirits of those that had lived in the lands before.

Other reports indicate that the supreme god of the Chinese, ShangDi was the reason for the many animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC when the Shang state was founded. The animals used for the sacrifices to ShangDi were lambs and sheep because the Chinese apparently recognized the sheep as a source of truthfulness, beauty, righteousness and eternity. It is, however, not explained why the animals sacrifices around 1500 BC were accompanied by human sacrifices. There is no mention of how the humans offered for sacrifice were selected and neither did they explain what the humans represented. Perhaps an explanation of the human sacrifices that sometimes accompanied the animal Sacrifice about 1500 BC could be to show the ancestors and the spirits, or ShangDi, the supreme Chinese god, that the people humbled themselves so that they could even offer one of them to either receive sanctity or win a certain favor from whom the sacrifices were directed.

Animal sacrifices in china were conducted with great spirituality since they represented a very important part and the link between the Chinese and their god, Shang Di. It is believed that ShangDi was a loving creator of the Chinese race, and, therefore, they humbled themselves to his command. When the sins of those in China were so many, the god blocked the path between heaven and earth so that the people when ahead and sacrificed a lamb to show how humble they were.

The most important sacrifice in the Shang state was that of Emperor Tang who disguised himself as a lamb, and was thus sacrificed so that god sent rain to the people as a result of the humble action of the emperor.