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Indo-Germanic Tribes and the Bible, Rise of

The term “Indo-Germanic” came from the word “indogermanisch” coined by German Orientalist Heinrich Julius von Klaproth in 1823. Making it a popular term for German scholars to refer to Amorite tribes during the middle bronze age in Mesopotamia. Among Indio-Germanic tribes are those dwelling near the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, sometimes called Indo-Iranians and Aryans. Celebrated Indo-Germanic tribes in the Bible include Amorites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, and Persians.

 Rise of Indo-Germanic Tribes (2000BC – 1700BC)
The rise of Indo-Germanic tribes is on the Bible Timeline Poster from 2000 BC – 1700 BC era. The primary and most important civilization at that time was Mesopotamia. The Akkadian Empire and Ur dynasty ruled North and South Mesopotamia, respectively. The Akkadian Empire lasted until the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur in 2112 BC. Around 2000 BC when the power of the UR dynasty declined, the Amorites occupied much of Mesopotamia. Amorites are nomads from the West and are long-standing rivals of the Sumerians. These Amorites established a kingdom in primary Mesopotamian states like Mari, Yamkhad, Qatna, Assyria (under Shamshi-Adad I), Isin, Larsa, and Babylon. Thus, the rise of Indo-Germanic tribes in this Mesopotamian era is also synonymous with the rise of Amorite Kingdoms.

The Amorite Kingdom in Mari

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Mari in relation to Babylon

Mari was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city presently called Tell Hariri, Syria. The Amorite dynasty revived the city of Mari at around 1900 BC after its destruction in the mid-24th century BC by either Sargon of Akkad or the Eblaites, Mari’s traditional commercial rivals. It’s king, Zimri-Lim, built a royal palace of over 3000 rooms.

The Amorite Kingdom in Yamhad

Yamhad (also known as Yamkhad or Jamhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom with its capital at Ḥalab, presently called Aleppo. This Amorite kingdom enjoyed prosperity in 1800 BC – 1600 BC together with its greatest rival, another Amorite kingdom in Qatna of the south. The Amorite Kingdom in Qatna Qatna, also called Qatanum, is one of the largest Bronze Age towns in western Syria, presently called Tell el-Mishrife. Its first king under an Amorite Kingdom is Ishi-Adad (or Haddad), an ally of Shamshi-Adad I of upper Mesopotamia, king of Assyria.

The Amorite Kingdom in Assyria

The rise of the Amorite in Assyria, an ancient home of the Akkadian Empire and  northern Iraq of the present day, has been attributed Shamshi-Adad I who seized the throne from a native Akkadian king Erishum II in 1813 BC. Shamshi-Adad I is also a descendant of the native ruler Ushpia, who formalized the Assyrian monarchy of the Assyrian empire.

The Amorite Kingdom in Isin and Larsa

Isin was an ancient city-state in Lower Mesopotamia while Larsa is an important ancient city being the center of worship of the sun god Utu. Although not totally captured Isin, Gungunum, an Amorite son of Samium, ruled Larsa (1868 BC – 1841 BC) and brought economic and political havoc to Isin during his reign. His successors also crippled Isin’s economy leaving the city-state with few inhabitants.

The Amorite Kingdom in Babylon

The city-state of Babylon was established by an Amorite ruler Sumuabum in the early 18th century BC. The kingdom started as a small nation with little power compared to established kingdoms like Isin, Larsa, Assyria, and Elam. However, the kingdom enjoyed glorious years on its sixth ruler Hammurabi in 1792 BC – 1750 BC conquering city-states of Isin, Eshnunna, Uruk, Mari and eventually Assyria to dominate in Mesopotamia.

Indo-Germanic Tribes in the Bible

Genesis 10:15-16. Amorites are descendants of Canaan, son of Ham.

Deuteronomy 3:11. Amorites are tall people and of a great physique.

Deuteronomy 4:46-48. Amorites have two kings in the east of Jordan.

Deuteronomy 1:7. Amorites occupy the southern mountains of Judea.

Joshua 10:10-27. On the days of Joshua, five Amorites already ruled Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon.

1 Samuel 7:14. During the time of Samuel, there is peace between Israelites and Amorites.

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Rameses II and the Bible

Rameses II is the son of Seti I who became an Egyptian Pharaoh in his 30th year of age. He ruled Egypt for about 67 years. He was believed to be the greatest and the most renowned pharaoh of Egypt. As the 3rd Egyptian pharaoh of the new kingdom, he ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC , which is where he is found on the Amazing Bible Timeline with World History.

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Ramses II

Rameses II Conquest with the Hittites

Being the leader of a nation brings with it a responsibility to keep his land free from the danger of invasion.  It is an obligation of a Pharaoh to make use of his power to maintain the peace of his land during his supremacy. Rameses II most famous fight of conquest was the one with the Hittites of Kadesh. During his fifth year of being a Pharaoh, Rameses II battled in Syria against the Hittites and its alliance. The war continued for twenty years after the series of battles with the Hittites.

In his second battle, Rameses II experienced difficulties during his attack on Athe, a city of Kadesha where he almost fell during the battle through deceit. It happened when he grouped his soldiers into four groups namely: Amun, Ra, Ptah and Setekh. Rameses II led the Amun division outside the city with the Ra division about a mile and a half behind. The Hittites however, hid waiting to ambush the Pharaoh’s army. They first attacked the Ra division so that the Pharaoh wouldn't have it as reinforcement. Fortunately, the group managed to escape. The Hittites then attacked the Amun group and surrounded the Pharaoh. However, Ramses II managed to fight back in the combat and was able to pave the way out for him and his men after killing quite a large number of Hittites. 

After that, the Pharaoh and his men camped to regroup the army. They then went into battle again for four hours until all of them were drained of energy.  Rameses II decided to pull his army out from the battle.

It was a draw battle. After several years, Rameses II reached an agreement with the prince of the Hittites. It was settled that Egypt and the Hittites were not to invade or attack each other’s land. They also formed an alliance to defend one another against common enemies and in subduing revolts in Syria. 13 years after the truce, Rameses II married the daughter of Manefrure’s, the prince of Hittite, a daughter named Hattusilis.

Ramases II as a Pharaoh

Ramases II was considered to be a great fighter. However, he was also seen as an incompetent leader. He took credit not due to him and consumed most of the wealth of Egypt in maintaining his name by building big projects during his reign. He scribed his name everywhere on the shrines and buildings in Egypt and even put his name on statues that were not his own.

However, overall, Rameses II was known to be “Ramses the Great” because he was truly a great family man, a religious leader, builder and a great warrior. By the time he died at 90 years of age, Egypt was rich through his conquest of other empires.

Rameses II in the Bible

Of all the Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt in the new kingdom, Rameses was the only name mentioned in the Bible. Rameses also seemed to be a name of a place rather than the name of a Pharaoh.

Genesis 47:11: This was the time when Joseph, through the command of Pharaoh, brought his father and siblings to the land of Egypt that was called the ‘land of Rameses.

Exodus 1: 11: The Israelites, as slaves, worked under tight taskmasters’ commands to build the treasure cities of Pharaoh, the Pithom and the Rameses.

Exodus 12:37: The people of Israel, 600,000 thousand men on foot and unknown number of children, journeyed from the place called Rameses to another place called Succoth

Numbers 33:3: This passage in the Bible pertains to the time when the Israelites from Rameses departed Egypt on the 15th day of the first month in the morning of the Passover feast.

Numbers 33:5: The removal of Israelites from an Egyptian city Rameses to Succoth.

Due to these passages, Rameses II is suggested as the Pharaoh of Exodus, as portrayed in “The Ten Commandments” in the classic film as well as in the animation film entitled “Prince of Egypt”. However, it should be noted that there are nine other Pharaohs who took the name of Rameses. Aside from that, Moses was said to be living around the 1525 BC to 1405 BC, two hundred years before Rameses II. Other than Rameses II, Pharaoh Thutmose III was the Pharaoh in Exodus. Moses has only been proposed as the Thutmose II for the first 22 years of the Pharaoh’s his life until Moses was cast out to Midian and the half brother of Nefure (speculated to be the daughter of Pharaoh who took Moses in) took Moses place as Thutmose II. This Thutmose was the father of Thutmose III; another speculated Pharaoh of Exodus.

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Phoenicia and The Bible

 Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in Southwest Asia consisting of city-states along the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Today that area covers Syria and Lebanon. It covered most of the western and coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. The name Phoenicia may also appear as Phenice and Phenicia. Basically, Phoenicians were Canaanites who conquered and settled on several landmarks surrounding the Mediterranean coastline.  Phoenicia is found on the Biblical Timeline Chart throughout the years 1500 BC to 300 BC. The places where they occupied and created small civilizations were: Cadiz, Kition, Utica, and Lixis. Greeks were also colonizing side by side with Phoenicians who saw this as a competition between territories. As a result, Phoenicians worked double time to create bigger colonies. They established numerous colonies including Carthage in northern Africa. 

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The commercial network of Phoenicia

Phoenicians and Their Contributions to the Society

The Phoenician civilization became well-known as the foremost navigators and traders of the Mediterranean by 1250 B.C. They were the early business men who practiced the trading and the industry of marketing.They had a keen ability to trade items with other colonies and tribes in their time. Their popular product was the purple dye made from the snail. This is how they got the name Phoenicia or Phoenix in Greek, meaning purple-red. Another item that they traded were dogs bred to develop their hunting and herding skills. The Phoenicians also produced wines. When Egypt had a hard time producing wine, the Phoenicians took advantage of this and create their own to trade with Egypt. Phoenicians also created trading posts. 

They were also famous for the marine vessel that allowed them to go from one location to another and best remembered for the products that they traded with others. As the Phoenicians traveled to the edges of the known world, they introduced their alphabet that was based on symbols for sounds rather than cuneiform or hieroglyphic representations. Their culture was gradually absorbed by Persian and later Hellenistic civilizations

How Phoenicia colonized Western Europe and Africa

Phoenician did not use brute force as conquerors do. The Phoenician people colonized Western Europe and Africa using trading goods from 1200 BC to 900 BC. Phoenicians, as Canaanites, were a Hamitic tribe that occupied the shores of Lebanon. Those Canaanites trading in Greece were called Phoenicians by the Greeks so that by 3 BC Lebanon became known as Phoenicia. As businessmen, Phoenician went so far that by 200 BC, they had colonized almost all of the Mediterranean shore. They established trading ports and depots all over the great shores. As they searched for more trading partners, they rounded the whole of Africa and went to England as well as Ireland. They founded many cities in Western Europe bringing with them their skills and industry of art, glassware, fragrance and precious stones.

Phoenician Colonies and Settlements

The Phoenicians had established commercial outposts throughout the Mediterranean including Carthage in North Africa and across the narrow straits in Sicily. These are considered the most strategically important ones. With these, they were able to monopolize the Mediterranean trade and keep their rivals from passing through. Some of their colonies were in Cyprus, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Iberian Peninsula. They also founded several small outposts a day’s sail away from each other all along the North African coast en route to Spain’s mineral wealth.

Phoenicians also reached the coast of southern Spain and along the coast of present-day Portugal. They also ventured north into the Atlantic Ocean as far as Great Britain, providing them tin mines and other important materials. Meanwhile, a Carthaginian expedition that was led by Hanno the Navigator explored and colonized the Atlantic coast of Africa as far as the Gulf of Guinea. They also explored south along the coast of Africa.

Basically, the Phoenicians were not an agricultural people because most of the lands in their settlements were not arable. Because of this, they focused on commerce and trading instead which established their identity as great mariners. On the other hand, the Phoenicians influenced other groups around the Mediterranean such as the Greeks who later became their main commercial rivals.

Phoenician Trade in the Bible

Phoenicians often trade their skills with the Israelites.

The people of Israel did not have enough time to master any skills in building even while in Egypt or when they were in the desert with Moses. For this reason, King David, as well as his son King Solomon after him made use of the Phoenician people to build their temples as stated in the Biblical passage in I Chronicles 14:1. King Hiram of one  Phoenician ancient city and a seaport, Tyre, sent his craftsmen to David to provide the King of Israel cedar logs with carpenters and stonemasons so that they could build his palace. When King David died, and Solomon reigned after him, he wrote to King Hiram (I Kings 5:6) to build a temple for him as his father David was so busy warring, he was not able to build a temple for the Lord (I Kings 5:3). King Hiram sent his carpenters and stonemasons once more with cedar logs and pine trees to create the temple (I Kings 5:8-10).

The Phoenician people, especially those craftsmen from Tyre, traded with King Solomon as stated in I kings 7:13-16 where King Solomon, after finishing his house after 13 years, planned to build another one in the forest of Lebanon. Throughout the Bible from Genesis to the time of the disciples in the Book of Acts, Canaanites, Lebanon and the places of Tyre and Sidon (another city in Phoenicia which means fishing) have been mentioned.

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Cadmus Founds Citadel of Thebes

Cadmus is a Phoenician prince in Greek mythology who was said to be the originator of the old Alphabet of the Greeks; the grandfather of the modern alphabet. He was also known as the founder of the city of Thebes. According to the Biblical timeline, Cadmus lived around the time of Ehud, the second Judge of Israel.

He was the son of the king and queen of Tyre, Agenor and Telephassa. His conquests started when he was sent to escort Europa, his sister, who was abducted by Zeus. In is a search for his sister, he later settled in Boeotia. Aside from a sister, Cadmus also had two other siblings, Phoenix and Cilix. Their father sent out all the brothers to search for their sister and commanded them never to return without her.

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Phoenician Writings

Phoenicia was an ancient place located around the area of Canaan. The 14th BC Amama Tablets showed that the people in Phoenicia at that time referred to themselves as Kinaani or Canaanites. They were maritime traders who claimed much of the great Mediterranean coastline. Cadmus sister Europa was said to have been abducted from the very shores of this ancient civilization. Phoenicia was actually a Greek term that referred to the Canaanites’ port towns. They were also known as remarkable seafarers.

Phoenicia has remarkable alphabetic writing that was already established in the first millennium BC. They had 22 letters widely used, especially in one of their cities, Byblos in 1500 BC. These were the letters that, thanks to Cadmus, influenced not only the Greek but the whole modern language of today.

Cadmus the Founder of Thebes

Cadmus is a legendary hero, as written in the history of Greece, who founded the city of Thebes. When Cadmus came to Boeotia in his search for his sister, he started the line of Thebes’ royal family.

When the brothers realized that the search for their sister was futile, Cadmus brothers settled in other places. Phoenix stayed somewhere in Phoenicia and Cilix inhabited and ruled Cilicia as a king.  Cadmus wanderings led him to Delphi. There, he met with the Oracle and he was ordered to stop looking for his sister as she had not been abducted by an ordinary bull but by Zeus. Instead, he needed to follow a cow with a half moon on the flank to find the place in which to build a city. The cow, given by the King of the Phocis, Pelagon, guided Cadmus to a place called Boetia. There, he founded his own city called Thebes.

Cadmus,Historical_Mythical_Figure
Cadmus and the Dragon

Cadmus was said to have so angered Ares when he killed his Dragon that he had to serve him in penance for eight years.  After the penance, he met Harmonia and they got married. However, Cadmus did not have a wonderful life. It was filled with tragedy and ill fortune.

Cadmus in the Bible

The Phoenician scripts were also the first letters used to translate the Bible. It was said that the ancient Hebrew language was, in fact, a Canaanite (Phoenician) language as stated in a Bible passage (Isaiah 19:18) where all the Hebrew people had taken the language as their own.

Cadmus, as the one who influenced so many in their writings, might have come across the Biblical characters due to their timeline.

In fact, the Book of Judges telling the history of Ehud was a part of the historical book, the Greek Septuagint. In the scriptures, the Book of Judges relates the period after Joshua subdued the Canaanites and the land was distributed to the 12 tribes of Israel (Joshua 14:1). This just shows that the Hebrew people had a great influence and might even have crossed path with the Prince of Tyre when the Israelites settled in Canaan or Phoenicia.

 

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Seti I and the Bible

Seti I: Father of Great Rulers in Egypt

 Menmaatre Seti I (commonly referred to as Seti I) was one of the greatest rulers of ancient Egypt . He fathered the renowned Rameses II also known as Ramses the Great. Many of the great successors to the Egyptian throne were from Seti I’s lineage. His birth name was Menmaatre Seti I which means “He of Set” that connotes dedication to the god “Set” and Menmaatre means “Eternal is the Justice of Re”. As a Pharaoh, he had several titles which included: Sethi I, Sety, Sety Merenptah and what the Greeks refer to as Sethos I.

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The unwrapped mummy of Seti I

Seti I: His Great Predicament

 It is said that Seti I had a great predicament during his reign as a pharaoh of Egypt. This began when a prophecy came up which avowed that someone would grow up to take over his throne. This predicament alarmed him so much that he ordered his men to kill every male child born in Egypt.

 Seti I: His Reign

 Seti I was an infamous leader throughout the ancient Egyptian history. According to the Biblical Timeline, his reign began in the 19th Dynasty recorded between 1294 BC – 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC. He was the second king since the start of the 19th dynasty. Among the most significant achievements of Seti, I was building the Great Temple of Abydos also known as the Osireion. He began the construction of this significant temple, and it was finished during the reign of his son, Ramses the Great.

 The temple is an L-shaped structure made of limestone and was originally 550 feet wide. The temple is a tomb or tabernacle dedicated to the ancient Egyptian god Osiris. Located in one of this temple’s tunnels is another significant relic called “The Table of Abydos”. Many consider the Table of Abydos equal in importance to the Rosetta Stone in the Egyptian archeology. The Table of Abydos contains a rare sequential list of pictograph with names of most of the ancient dynastic pharaohs enlisting the details and periods of the reign of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs and dynasties. This piece of a relic is popularly known to this modern period as the “King’s List”.

 Another significant event that happened in his time was the capturing of the place called “Kadesh”, a Syrian town. Throughout history, many pharaohs had attempted to recapture this land during their reign but to no avail. Seti I was the only recorded pharaoh to have successfully accomplished this goal. Together with his son, Ramses the Great, they triumphantly entered Kadesh and erected a victory monument at the site. Seti I spearheaded a series of battles to Western Asia, Canaan, Libya and Nubia. Many believe that he was a great king, a successful warrior and a great builder and these accounts have proved them correct.

 Seti I: His Legacy

 When Seti I died, he was buried in the lengthiest and deepest tomb yet found in the Valley of the Kings. Giovanni Battista Belzoni discovered the tomb in 1817. The tomb of Seti I was one of the finest examples of Egyptian funerary art ever found in history. Also during his reign, Egyptian Art flourished to a point that was undoubtedly never equaled, as is showed in the monuments and art left after his death.

Seti I: In the Bible

 Exodus 1:8-22

According to the recent discoveries of some historians and Bible scholars, the passage of Exodus 1:8-22 “Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph” was originally associated with Aahmes I or Amosis but new research suggests that the passage rightfully refers to Seti I.

Exodus 2:1-10

When Moses was born, his mother decided to nurture him for three straight months. Eventually the time came when she could no longer hide him from the mandate of the current Pharaoh Seti I to kill all male babies in Egypt. Moses’ mother was forced to place him in a basket among the reeds along the Nile River. The pharaohs’ daughter discovered the basket and let her slave take care of him. When the child Moses grew older, the slave brought the child back to the pharaohs’ daughter and from then on she considered Moses her son.

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Amenhotep IV and the Bible

Amenhotep the fourth is the 10th Pharaoh in the new kingdom and the 18th dynasty. He was called Amenhotep IV for his first five years reign as a Pharaoh. However, he became so devoted to the sun disc god Aten that he adapted the name Akhenaten, meaning “The one who is of service to Aten”. Amenhotep IV ruled Egypt for 17 years until his death. He is found on the Biblical Timeline Chart during the timeframe of Moses and the Exodus.

Unlike his father before him, Amenhotep IV did not rule as long as his father Amenhotep III who ruled for 40 years. His greatest known accomplishment was his establishment of a monotheistic cult that centred on worshipping the god of sun disc called Aten.

Due to his belief in Aten, Amenhotep IV had other temples of gods destroyed like the temple of Amon. All inscriptions referring to ‘gods’ was wiped out as well. However, when he died, all his efforts in having one religion came to nothing as his son, Tutankhamen reverted back to the multi-god beliefs of the Egyptian people. The mummy of Amenhotep IV was rumoured to have been destroyed by Amon priest so that he would not be able to go to an afterlife.

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Amenhotep IV Statue

The Pharaoh Amenhotep IV was considered to be a good man by many. Some consider his monotheist belief is the origin of the Judeo-Christian monotheism.

Amenhotep IV in the Bible – The Pharaohs of Exodus

There have been a lot of pharaohs in the bible. There was the king of Egypt Shishak (I Kings 11:40, KJV) whom Jeroboam fled to when Solomon sought to kill him and So (II Kings 17:4, KJV) where Hosea, discovered by the Assyrian King, conspired and sent So, the king of Egypt a message. Another was the pharaoh Nechoh (II Kings 23:29; II Chronicles 35:20, KJV) who killed King Josiah in Megiddo when the king went up against the King of Egypt.

But the most famous of all Pharaohs in the Bible is the Pharaohs of Exodus. However, their names are never mentioned.  That is why until now, their identity is still open to speculation. There was two pharaohs that were needed to be identified, the one who oppressed the Israelites and the one who was plagued and set the Israelites free, thus the Exodus.

For example here is one theory.  When Moses was born, Tutmoses I, son of Amenhotep I, was the Pharaoh at that time who ordered the death of all male children of Israel. Tutmoses I had no son so that Nefure, speculated to be the princess who found Moses, adopted Moses. Tutmoses I named Moses as his heir and gave him the name Tutmoses II. Moses was Tutmoses II for 22 years until he killed an Egyptian and fled to Midian. The name Tutmoses II was given to Nefure’s half-brother.  She later became Queen Hatshepsut. Tutmoses III son from a concubine was the father of Amenhotep III.

Amenhotep III, father of Amenhotep IV, was said to be the Pharaoh of Exodus. Tutankhamen was said to be the first born son who died in the plague (Exodus 12:29) making his brother, Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) the crown prince. Amenhotep was a witness to his father’s pride against the God of the Hebrew and saw how their gods were struck powerless. This is why, when he became a Pharaoh himself, Amenhotep IV worshipped only one god, Aten. 

This is just but one of the speculations on the identity of the Pharaoh of Exodus. Other pharaohs who could be the pharaoh of Exodus are Dudimeos, Ahmose I, Thutmose III, Horemheb, Ramesses I and Ramesses II. Ramesses II is the most well-known candidate due to the films “The Ten Commandments” and the “Prince of Egypt”.

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Amenhotep III and the Bible

The Pharaohs of Egypt in the Ancient Times

Pharaohs are the Kings of Egypt, the most powerful people in the land. The Pharaoh is not only a ruler but a religious leader. Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt are subdivided into three kingdoms in the Bible timeline with World History, the old kingdom, the middle kingdom and the new kingdom.

Pharaoh as a word originated from Egyptian word ‘per-aa’ that means the ‘great house’ or the royal palace. Only in the new kingdom was it used to refer to the King. The Pharaoh was the commander-in-chief of his army, and the leader to maintain “Maat” or divine order. Without the Pharaoh, the ancient Egyptians believed there would be chaos in the land.

The history of Ancient Egypt has recorded several Pharaohs although only a few have achieved significance across the timeline. One of these great Pharaohs was Amenhotep III who ruled a peaceful Egypt for 40 years and left a legacy of beautiful monuments to imagine the splendour of Egypt in his time.

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Amenhotep III

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Statue of Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III is a Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of the new kingdom around 1382 to 1344 BC. He was the 9th pharaoh, the grandson of Thutmosis III. He was also called Amenophis and his name Amenhotep means Amun, one of the gods in Egypt.

Throughout his 40 years of reign, he had built incredible statues. As a benevolent leader to his people at a time when Egypt was at its finest, Amenhotep the III was a magnificent ruler.

Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose IV and Queen Mutmewiya who was a minor wife. Amenhotep III was made Pharaoh at a young age of 12. He had about 317 wives, but his favourite was Tiye. She was Yuya’s daughter, a high official of his father. Queen Tiye was of Nubian descent. They were married when Amenhotep III was just around 11 to 12 years of age. Queen Tiye was the first Pharaohs wife who had official acts giving an impression of her intelligence. Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye had a son named Akhenaten who later inherited the throne after the death of Amenhotep III.

Amenhotep III leadership was a peaceful reign. He was a prosperous king who spent most of his time supervising the construction of great monuments that, up to this time, still stand to commemorate his rule over Egypt in the Ancient times. His most famous structure was Luxor or the Temple of Amun. Today, this is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Egypt. After 40 years of reign as a Pharaoh in Egypt, Amenhotep III died from an unexplainable illness. He left his wife Tiye to live with their son Akhenaten.

Amenhotep III in the Bible

There are many speculations as to who Amenhotep III was in the Bible. The Pharaohs of Egypt are mentioned in the Biblical passages from the time of Abram and fair Sarai, his wife (Genesis 12), the time of Joseph the Dreamer (Genesis 39-50; Acts 7:13) to the famed story of Moses and the Exodus (Exodus 2-18; Deuteronomy 29:2; Hebrews 11:24) and even in the time of Solomon, the wise son of David (I Kings 3-11; II Chronicles 18:11), Pharaohs intersected with the lives of the Israel people. However, names were not mentioned. One can only speculate the names of the Pharaohs in the Bible according to the timeline of the history. Amenhotep III might be one of the Pharaohs of these Biblical passages as the timeline suggests, but the question remains unanswered: Which one of the Pharaohs mentioned in the Bible was Amenhotep III?