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Chimu Culture in Northern Peru, Collapse of

Peru was the home of several civilizations that rose and fell as hundreds of years passed. The Chimu civilization of northern Peru was no different when it fell to the expanding Inca empire in 1470. The collapse of the Chimu Culture in Northern Peru is located on the Biblical Timeline with World History during that time. The Inca expansion ended the 500-year dominance of the Chimu in northern Peru. Its collapse made the Inca people the undisputed masters of Peru in the fifteenth century.

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Topa Inca Yupanqui and the Fall of the Chimu

Topa Inca Yupanqui was born in 1440 to the great Inca king Pachacuti and his wife, Mama Anahuarque. He was the youngest of his father’s legitimate sons.  The boy was born in his father’s old age. By the time of his birth, the Inca empire had become a prosperous state and had a strong army. Pachacuti, however, felt that there was no need for him to expand the empire, so he passed this responsibility to his son Topa Inca Yupanqui.

chimu_collapse
“Map of the expansion of the Inca Empire under Topa Inca Yupanqui”

In 1463, Topa Inca became his father’s co-emperor, but his father felt that his son still needed to experience warfare to be worthy of the throne. Pachacuti promoted the young warrior as the army’s commander-in-chief. Topa Inca led his army north of Cuzco for his first military conquest. He first conquered the Cañari and the powerful Quitu people of the north, then turned his sights on the equally powerful Chimu civilization of northern Peru. After some resistance, he finally conquered the Chimu Empire in 1470 and resettled Incas in the areas previously held by the Chimor. Unlike other empires, the Incas did not stamp out the Chimu culture. Instead, they used Chimu art styles in their pottery and paintings.

After his son’s successful conquest of the northern tribes, Pachacuti felt that Topa Inca Yapanqui was ready to become the emperor. Pachacuti abdicated in 1471. The new emperor started his reign with a campaign to conquer the Amazon tribes of the east. He also put down a rebellion led by the Omasuyu, Lupaqa, Pacasa, and Qulla tribes. Topa Inca Yupanqui’s reign was considered as the Inca’s golden age. The empire’s borders at that time stretched from Ecuador in the north and Chile in the south.

References:
Picture: Public Domain, Link
Brundage, Burr Cartwright, and Arnold Toynbee. Empire of the Inca. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
Del_Testa, David W., John Strickland, and Florence Lemoine. Government Leaders, Military Rulers and Political Activists. Westport: Oryx Press, 2001.
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