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Jehoahaz, King of Israel

Jehoahaz’s name means “God has held” and he is the son of Jehu. King Jehoaz ruled Israel for 17 years. He appears on the Bible Timeline Poster starting in 868 BC. During his reign the people of people of Israel were being oppressed by Hazael the King of Aram. God had allowed this captivity to take place because Jehoahaz had endorsed the Golden Calf Cult in Israel. The first ruler of the divided kingdom of Israel named Jeroboam started this cultic practice as a means to control the people of Israel. Early in his reign, Jeroboam realized that if the people were allowed to worship God at the temple in Judah they would more than likely reunite the kingdom. So he created the Golden Calf Cult to keep the people divided against God. This policy was repeatedly used by kings that followed after him. God had constantly judged these kings for this sin.

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Jehoahaz

The new kings either didn’t realize that God was judging them for allowing the Golden Calf Cult religion to flourish, or they didn’t care about how God felt about what they were doing. Many Judean rulers also allowed this cult to continue so that they could retain their power as well. So when King Hazael of Aram severely oppressed the Israelites, he was allowed to do so because of God was using him to punish his people. At one point in time, the oppression became so severe that King Jehoahaz had to turn to the Lord to find relief for the people and himself. God sent the people of Israel an unnamed deliverer who able to free the people from the clutches of the King of Aram. Once the people were free, they turned back to the sins. This is reminiscent of how the people behaved during the time of the Judges. When God sent deliverers to free the people who right back to doing the same things that brought God’s judgment down on them in the first place. Ben-Hadad of Aram was the son of Hazael, and he was allowed by God to continue to harass the Israelites because they didn’t stop sinning. King Jehoahaz had fought battles against this king, but his forces were significantly reduced in size. He fought so much and lost so many battles that toward the end of his reign he only had 50 cavalry troops, 10 chariots, and 10,000-foot soldiers. Eventually, Jehoahaz passed away, and his son Jehoash took his place as the next ruler of Israel.

Biblical References:

  • 2 Kings 13: 1, 2 Gives an overview of King Jehoahaz’s time in power. God is angry with him for not wiping out the Golden Calf Cult.
  • 2 Kings 13: 3 Because God was angry with him he kept he allowed King Hazael of Aram to oppress Israel.
  • 2 Kings 13: 4 King Jehoahaz comes to his senses and prays to God for help from Aram. God listens to his plea.
  • 2 Kings 13: 5 God sends a deliverer to free the people from the tyranny of Hazael, and the people live in their homes once again.
  • 2 Kings 13: 6 The people do not return to worshipping God and pagan idols remain the land.
  • 2 Kings 13: 7 – 9 King Jehoahaz’s army was severely decimated by war and he only had a small number of troops remain as a part of his forces. He eventually dies and is replaced by Jehoash, his son.
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Jehoash, King of Divided Israel

King Jehoash’s ascension to the throne of Israel was filled with intrigue, deception, and suspense. His name describes the events of his life and the kingdom of Israel during his reign. His name literally means “God has given” and it is sometimes referred to as Joash. His reign appears on the Bible Timeline Poster with World History from 891 BC.

According to God, King Ahab was one of the worst kings in the history of Israel. He caused the people to worship false gods, and he didn’t obey the Lord. He also allowed his wife Jezebel to kill God’s people and set up Baal worship all over the land. Eventually, God judged King Ahab and Jezebel for their actions. God used a man named Jehu to wipe out Ahab’s family line and he succeeded in killing just about every member of Ahab’s family including their relatives. Jehu eventually became king of Israel after he wiped out many of Ahab’s kinsmen. When he became king, he continued this extermination program against the king of Judah.

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Jehoash

This particular king’s name was Ahaziah, and he was the grandson of Ahab. Ahaziah’s mother name was Athalia and when she found out that her son was dead, she decided to kill all of his children so she could be the ruler of Judah. She was successful in eliminating all of her grandchildren except for one. His name was Jehoash, and he was an infant when he was rescued from Athalia’s treachery.

Athalia Kills the Last Remaining Relative of Ahab

God used a princess named Jehosheba to hide Jehoash in Solomon’s Temple with his nurse. The young king remained inside of this place for six years before he could claim the throne. While Jehoash was in hiding a Levite priest by the name of Jehoiada made sure he was never found. He guarded the boy until it was time for him to claim the throne.

Jehoida led a secret plot to assassinate Queen Athalia, and his assassination attempt proved to be successful. Right before the Queen was killed, he had crowned the boy Jehoash as king. Once Athalia saw this happen, she yelled “treason” and Jehoiada had the guards slay her.

Jehoiada guided the little king from his infancy into adulthood. He taught him the ways of God, and the land of Israel prospered greatly during the early part of his reign. Jehoiada helped the king to get the people to worship God once again, and he had the king to destroy all of the idols that kept being rebuilt in the land. Many people in Israel prospered during the early part of Jehoash’s reign.

King Jehoash’s Decline

Time had passed, and Jehoiada was old and full years. The Bible says that he was 130 years old when he died. While he was alive Israel had enjoyed great peace and prosperity but once he died the kingdom went into decline. As soon as Jehoiada had died King Jehoash listened to false advisors who managed to get him to stop worshipping God. They also influenced the king to start Baal worship once again and when he did this God had to judge the nation. Before he carried out any type of judgment against King Jehoash he sent prophets to warn him to repent but he didn’t listen. Eventually, God sent Zechariah the son of Jehoiada, to warn Jehoash to turn back. He didn’t listen to him and stoned him death. 2 Chronicles 24: 19 – 22. God then sent a small force from the kingdom of Aram against Judah and Jerusalem. God judged Jehoash for his evil deeds. 2 Chronicles 24: 24, 25 He was killed by his officials for slaying Jehoiada’s son. Jehoash ruled Judah for forty years. The last years of Jehoash’s rule caused the people to go back into sin against God. Jehoash was succeeded by his son Amaziah.

Bible References

  • 2 Kings 11: 1 – 3 Athaliah kills off her grandchildren so that she can become the ruler of Israel except for Jehoash, who is hidden in the temple by his aunt, Jehosheba.
  • 2 Kings 11: 4 – 21 Jehoash remains in hiding for six years and is protected by a high priest named Jehoiada. This priest eventually assassinates the Athalia so that Jehoash can return to the throne.
  • 2 Chronicles 23: 16 – 18 Jehoiada guides the young king in the ways of God, and he helps him to govern the kingdom. God blesses the land of Judah because he is directing King Jehoash in the ways of the Lord. Israel prospers during this period.
  • 2 Chronicles 24: 15 Jehoiada dies and things change for King Jehoash.
  • 2 Chronicles 24: 17 – 18 Jehoash stops putting God first and causes the people stop worshiping God.
  • 2 Chronicles 24: 19 – 22 God sends Jehoiada son Zechariah to warn the king about his evil actions. The king has him stoned to death.
  • 2 Chronicles 24: 19 – 22 King Jehoash was killed by his officials for killing Jehoiada’s son.
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Olympiad 776 BC, First

The Olympic Games is perhaps the most well-known global sports event that includes the largest number of participating nations for any sort of worldwide activity. This gargantuan event that hosts a large variety of different sports and activities can trace back its roots to the first Olympiad 776 BC which is where it appears on the Bible Timeline Poster with World History. This is during the time of the reign of the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah.Judah.

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Olympic competitor

Greek Origins

According to any historical records dating back to hundreds of years, the Olympic Games was first held in 776 BC to commemorate Zeus and the other gods of Mount Olympus. Another purpose these games had was to help in solving ongoing conflicts between various city states. It was believed that the Ancient Greeks held the event to be so sacred that no armed man was allowed to set foot on the event grounds. And that all city states entered a temporary truce in the months before and after the Olympics. The event was held every four years during the midsummer full moon. This particular date was chosen so that the sporting events could be held even as night fell.

The years that came in between the Olympic Games were called Olympiads. An Olympiad was named according to the athletes that were victorious in the previous gamed. The first ever Olympiad was named after Coribus of Elis for winning a foot race. Olympiads are often an important chronological marker for historians since any major event during the ancient world was often associated with a specific Olympiad period. Based on this, the first ancient Olympiad was the years 776 to 772 BC. Currently, we count our Olympiads according to the first modern count marked during the 1896 Olympics.

Eligibility for the Games

In the Ancient world, only male Greeks were allowed to compete. Those accused of heinous crimes and sacrilege were prohibited from entering. Honorable play and competition were pivotal during the ancient Olympics, and all competing athletes were to move to Elis or Olympia a month before the official games began. The audience also followed similar rules in eligibility. No one accused of crimes and sacrilege was allowed to watch the games. Furthermore, women were not allowed to watch games involving nude men, and such a privilege was only allowed to the Demeter priestess.

The Evolution of the Games

During the games before the first Olympiad 776 BC, a simple foot race was the only real mark of this unifying event. But as years went on, the Olympic events evolved to incorporate more competitive activities. Generally, the Ancient Olympic Games were divided between physical stadium events, where the participants would compete in the nude, and racing events. The Olympics was normally done in a five-day period.

The first day involved making sacrifices to Zeus and the participants and trainers making a solemn oath to the gods. The second day was marked with chariot races in the early morning and followed by the pentathlon in the stadium. The third day was considered the most solemn day of sacrifice where several bulls were slaughtered at the altar of Zeus. The fourth day involved physical contests in the stadium as well as foot races. This was the last day involving athletic events. The fifth day was the victory banquet when the winners received their awards and a final procession to the altar of Zeus was held. The night would then be filled with feasts and overall revelry.

Though much has changed since the first Olympiad 776 BC, what remains of the Olympic Games is that it still somehow brings together a large host of otherwise bickering nations. Though it is so much larger now than just a few warring Greek city-states, the Olympic Games continue to live on as the prime global sporting event.

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Ben Hadad of Syria, King

Genealogy and Bible references

King Ben-Hadad simply means ‘the son of Hadad’. He lived during the rule of King Ahab of Israel on the Bible timeline poster. He is the heir of Tabrimmon, who came to be known as “king of Syria that dwelt at Damascus and the son of Hezion.” Hezion, who is also determined to be Rezion, was the founder of Damascus, who also instilled Syria with a culture of aggression.

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Damascus

King Hadad as King

During the rule of Ben-Hadad, Syria was the most dominant region in the Western part of Asia. He seized every opportunity to conquer lands and increase his control over other properties and people. He had an alliance with 32 other kings.

Wars against Israel

King Ben-Hadad coveted King Ahab’s wives, children, silver, gold and possessions which prompted King Ahab to give in to his demands. However, Ben Hadad sent his messengers, still, to announce to King Ahab that he would send his servants to survey his kingdom and seek for the things of value that pleased them. Israel‘s king listened to the elders advice that King Ben-Hadad should not be allowed to do the things he wanted to do with their city. This resulted in a war between these two kingdoms after they had an oral argument. King Ben-Hadad asked his messengers to tell King Ahab that there would not be enough room in the dust where his soldiers would stand when they go into the city. King Ahab was understandably enraged and sent a reply through his messengers to tell the other king that a soldier should not brag of his victories until after the war. Two succeeding wars between the two kingdoms gave King Ahab victory, which forced King Ben-Hadad to free Israel and to restore its cities. Not only that, King Ben-Hadad allowed markets to be set up in Damascus, similar to those in Samaria. He made a treaty with the ruler of Israel with a plan of waging a future war with Israel in three years.

Victories of Israel

God told the king through his messengers that King Ahab should start the war against the forces of King Ben-Hadad. His army composed of 7000 Israelites headed towards King Ben Hadad’s forces. Later on, the Israelites were able to overpower their enemies, forcing them to flee, including their king. A prophet came to Ahab shortly after their victory to foretell that the Syrians would attack next spring. As it was prophesized, the ruler of Syria led his army, fought the Israelites on the plains and lost. The Aramean foot soldiers were wounded by hundreds of thousands by the Israelites in a day. Some on them escaped to Aphek where 27,000 of them collapsed by a wall. King Ben-Hadad went to hide in his inner room after fleeing from the city. God gave the victory to the Israelites to show that their God is not only the god of hills and mountains but also the god of all the lands, contrary to what King Ben Hadad was told.

Bible References to King Ben-Hadad:

1Kings Chapter 20: 1 to 34: Ben- Hadad Attacks Samaria

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Elah and King Zimri of Israel, King

When the kingdom of Israel had split into half Jeroboam had ruled Israel in the north. Once he was made king he caused the people to sin by turning them away from worshipping God. So the Lord judged Jeroboam and wiped out his family line through a man named Bashaa (1 Kings 15:25-31). Once Bashaa was on the throne, he committed the same sins as Jeroboam and led the people into false worship. Once he had passed away, his son Elah (the name means an oath or a curse) became the next king. These kings are found on the Bible Timeline Poster during the reign of the Kings after the Division of the Kingdom.

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Elah, King of Isreal

Bashaa’s Sins

Bashaa slew Nadab and took over the kingdom from him. Once he became king he didn’t turn the people back to worship God instead he continued with the pagan practices that were started by Jeroboam. As a result, God used the prophet Jehu to tell him that his family line was going to be wiped out. This was the same judgment that he used against Jeroboam.

Jehu’s Prophecy

God used a prophet named Jehu to inform Bashaa about his judgment. God stated through Jehu that he lifted up Bashaa to rule over his people. Bashaa didn’t lead the people back into the true worship of God. As a result, God said that Bashaa’s kinsmen would be eaten by dogs when they died in the city and consumed by birds when they died in the country. Once Bashaa had died, his son Elah became king.

Elah the King

Elah had become king, and he continued in the ways of his father, Bashaa. During his reign one of his officials named Zimri had plotted to kill him. One day King Elah was spending some time at the home of one of his royal officials. This particular administrator was named Arza, and he was the palace, administrator. King Elah and Arza were passing the night away drinking, and that’s when he struck him down. After killing Elah, Zimri became the king. Elah only reigned for two years just like his father. Zimri wiped out all of Bashaa’s family line (and his male friends) starting with Elah.

Zimri’s Rule of Israel

Zimri was a soldier who commanded half of the charioteers. Once the army had heard that he killed King Elah, they declared the commander of their army named Omri as their leader. Omri and the Israeli soldiers moved against Zimri and surrounded the city of Tirzah were he ruled. Zimri knew he couldn’t defeat Omri, and he set fire to the palace. Zimri only ruled Israel for seven days before he was removed from the throne. God already knew that Zimri was going to follow in the ways of Jeroboam and 1 Kings 16:19 states that this is the reason he was quickly removed from his position as king. King Elah and King Zimri probably were both destined to rule Israel for a long time, but they had to do rule on God’s terms. Apparently neither one of these rulers understood this important fact. As a result of their decisions to worship false gods they both died horrible deaths, and they only ruled Israel for a short period.

Biblical References

  • 1 Kings 12:1-24 The Kingdom of Israel splits and Jeroboam rules the north. He begins the Golden Calf Cult, which is still carried out by Elah and Zimri.
  • 1 Kings 15:25-31 Bashaa destroys Jeroboam and his family line and sets himself up as king. Bashaa is the father of Elah.
  • 1 Kings 16:1-4 Jehu the prophet tells Bashaa about his coming demise as king.
  • 1 Kings 16:13 Elah becomes king after his father dies and continues in the way of the Golden Calf Cult.
  • 1 Kings 16:8-11 Zimri slays Elah, and God fulfills his judgment against Bashaa through the death of his son. Zimri also wipes out the rest of Bashaa’s line. Zimri becomes king.
  • I Kings 16:16 A military commander named Omri is made king by the Israeli soldiers, and he attacks Zimri.
  • I Kings 16:19 Zimri sets the palace on fire and dies, and Omri is now the new king. Zimri only rules Israel for seven days.
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Sanskrit

Some scholars believed that Sanskrit was a pre-cursor to European languages while others disagree quite heatedly.  Sanskrit appears on the Bible World History Timeline around 1000 BC with a note that it is possibly related to European languages.

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Sanskrit

The Indian people believe that Sanskrit was a spiritual language that has been passed down to man through their people. This language was supposed to have originated with the Vedas or large body of text that has been given to the Hindu people well over 5000 years ago. The texts were supposed to be given to the Indians in the form of “what is heard” and not “what is remembered”. According to Hindu legend, mankind was able to retain knowledge when something was spoken to them one time. As time progressed, people became more evil and corrupted and, as a result, they lost their ability to comprehend information without the use of written language. Since then this language has been known to have a spiritual and religious connection associated with it since its origins are supposedly supernatural.  Sanskrit appears on the Bible World History Timeline around 1000 BC.

Three major religions in Asia use Sanskrit as a part of their religious services. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism have made this language their official dialect. The Indian state of Uttarakhand uses Sanskrit as their official language. Sanskrit is also a highly regarded language in Indo-European studies, culture, and history.

Sanskrit was about to die out at one point in the history of India since the institutions that supported it had become irrelevant. This had occurred around the 18th century before the British had dominated India. Once the British took over the language was preserved, and it was used for scholarly purposes and the educated classes. The average person in India during that time did not speak Sanskrit. In modern times, Sanskrit has become a common language in some parts of India. As much as half of the words used in modern India are supposed to be influenced by Sanskrit.

Sanskrit doesn’t have an original unified script because the early scripts were influenced by the region of the scribe. This means that all of the writing systems in southern Asia have been used to produce Sanskrit manuscripts. The Brahmi scripts were the earliest known for his language, and it was created in the 1st century B.C. The Brahmic scripts were also important since they had evolved into a variety of different Sanskrit scripts. The Northwest part of the subcontinent of India used the Kharosthi script. Gupta evolved from the Brahmi scripts.

Initially, many British scholars and linguists thought that Sanskrit was an inferior language since they thought that the Indian people were underneath them. However, their attitudes changed with time and English-speaking linguists and scholars have taken steps to preserve this language. They have transliterated Sanskrit with Latin and other Romanized languages.

The language has also been revived in the country of India since the latter half of the 20th century. Many different social and educational institutions have been trying to make Sanskrit an accepted part of the culture. Some political organizations have also tried to promote Hinduism in commercialized slogans to help spread the use of the language. Their efforts have been well received but competing with Hindi and English (India’s two primary languages) is proving difficult for supporters of Sanskrit.

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David and Goliath

Among the most popular characters of the Bible history are David and Goliath. The Bible features the story of David, a shepherd boy, who defeated the powerful Philistine warrior named Goliath. David grew up to be the mighty king of Israel, as well as Jesus Christ‘s human ancestor. David defeats Goliath appears on the Bible Timeline Poster 1063 BC

Interesting Facts about David

The name “David” means strong or beloved. According to the Hebrew Bible or the Christian Old Testament, David was the second king of Israel. The Gospel of Matthew and Luke mentioned David as the ancestor of Jesus. He was an important figure to Christian, Islamic and Jewish culture and doctrine. In Judaism, David was recognized as the king of Israel and the entire Jewish people. In Islam, he was known as Dawud, who was said to be the king of a nation and a great prophet.

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David lived from 1040 to 970 BC. His life was full of contrasts, as he was committed to God, yet he also engaged in grave sins that were recorded in the Old Testament. Pieces of information on David may be found in 1 Kings, 1 Chronicles, and the books of Samuel. These resources provided some details on how challenging David’s life was. For instance, he suffered from difficulties with his brothers and in dealing with the wrathful King Saul. Even when David became the king of Israel, he experienced constant warfare to defend his kingdom. Although he was an excellent military conqueror, he could not triumph over his own self. In fact, he allowed a lustful night with Bathsheba, which led serious consequences in his reputation and life.

Who Was Goliath

The name “Goliath” came from the Hebrew verb “gala”, which means to uncover or to go into exile. He is a figure found in the Old Testament and is famous for his battle with David. His name appears twice in the Bible, in the narration of his combat with the young David. In 1 Samuel 17:50, Goliath was killed with a slingshot stone, and this resulted to David’s fame as a brave warrior.
The narration of David’s fight with Goliath was intended to present David’s identity as the rightful king of Israel. In Jewish traditions, Goliath’s status represented paganism while David was a visible sign of God’s victory and power.

David ‘s Accomplishments

One of the greatest accomplishments of David was when he defeated Goliath, the mighty Philistine warrior. David was only a young boy that time, and Goliath was a veteran warrior with an intimidating appearance. The young David became a champion in the fight because of his great trust in God’s power. His faith also led him to numerous victories as he killed several enemies of Israel in battles. He also became friends with Jonathan, Saul’s son.

Bible References

The story of King David is found in 1 Samuel 16 to 1 Kings 2. He wrote much of the content in the Book of Psalms, and he was mentioned in Luke 1:32, Matthew 1:1, Romans 1:3, Hebrews 11:32, and Acts 13:22.

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Hiram of Phoenicia Allies with David

King Hiram was the ruler of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. This particular king ruled Tyre during the reign of King David of Israel which appears on the Bible Timeline Poster with World History during the 12th century BC.

When King David ruled the throne of Israel, King Hiram was ruling the Phoenician city-state of Tyre. This unique city was a mighty economic center for maritime trade and commerce.

Hiram_of_Phoenicia_allies_with_David
Tomb of Hiram, King of Tyre

King Hiram held a monopoly on the Mesopotamian trade routes that stretched across the sea. Tyre was a commercial center for activity, trade and wealth. King David had managed to gain control over many of the territories that surrounded Israel. After he subdued and controlled the foreign nations that were problematic for Israel, he began to focus his attention on building God a temple.

In 2 Samuel 7 God tells King David that he is happy with his desire to build a permanent temple to house the Ark of the Covenant. Though God is happy with King David’s motive for wanting to build the temple he doesn’t allow him to start the project. The Bible states that King David was a man of war and that he shed too much blood to be able to build God’s temple. At this point, God decided to bless King David by allowing his lineage always to sit on the throne of Israel. And he allowed David to gather the supplies that would be needed to complete the building of the temple. King David’s son, Solomon was going to start and complete the building of the temple.

King David apparently had established good diplomatic connections with King Hiram before or after his many successful conquests of the Ammonites, Moabites, Arameans and Edomites (2 Samuel 8). Once King David held control of these lands, he turned his attention toward gathering the materials that his son Solomon would one day use to build the temple.

Tyre was the greatest economic center in the ancient world. This city had a vast amount of wealth from many goods that it traded with other empires and kingdoms. King David knew about the Phoenicians, and he knew that he could rely on them to purchase the materials that he needed to build the temple. King Hiram of Tyre had sent skilled craftsmen to build King David a house or fortress (1 Chronicles 14:1). King Hiram sided with King David out of the treaty that they had signed together (2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Kings 5:1).

King Hiram probably established this treaty out of fear since he realized that God was with King David. He also was trying to keep good diplomatic relations with the Israeli King since he knew that his nation was going to be a good investment during his time in power. Tyre prospered financially from their business relations with Israel since they purchased wood, gold, purple dye, linen, iron and brass. King Hiram also sent King David many skilled craftsmen and servants to aid him in the construction process of the temple.

King Hiram’s and King David’s alliance might seem to be an unlikely one since both of these rulers had believed in different deities. The belief in gods was of extreme importance to people who lived in the ancient world. The Phoenicians chief deity was Baal, and the Israelis believed in God. Many of the Canaanite people who believed in Baal were usually the enemies of Israel. On this occasion, these two monarchs had managed to set aside their differences and created a mutually beneficial diplomatic relationship. This relationship was so strong that it continued with King David’s son (Solomon) after he died.

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Ishmael, Generations of

Ishmael
Ishmael and his mother Hagar in the desert

The Ishmaelites are the descendants of Ishmael, the son born to Abraham through Sarah’s handmaid Hagar. Shortly after Ishmael was conceived, Isaac was born. Soon after Isaac was born, Ishmael began to harass him. Sarah didn’t like this and she told Abraham to send Hagar and her son away. Hagar and Ismael wandered through the desert and almost died. God showed mercy on Hagar and Ishmael by providing them with water and food. He also told Ishmael that he would eventually start 12 nations.  The generations of Ishmael are referenced on the Bible Timeline Poster about 1500 BC.

The generations of Ishmael are outlined in Genesis 25:13-17. This passage of the Bible is an outline of the sons that he had. Nebaioth was his first born son and his second son was Kedar. Then there was Abdeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah. The 12 tribes of Ishmael had begun from his sons and the tribes were known by their names. The tribes that descended from Ishmael were also numbered twelve just like the tribes of Israel.

The Arabs are one group of people that can trace their lineage back to Ishmael. Most of Ishmael’s descendants settled into the region of modern day Arabia. Many Arabians claim that he is the father of their people. There is some historical proof and some speculation about what happened to the 12 tribes of Ishmael after he passed away.

The tribe of Nebaioth was formly named Nabat and they settled south of the Red Sea. Their land was known as Nabataea in ancient times. Kedar settled in the region of modern day Arabia. Adbeel settled into northwest Arabia and they were also used to protect the entrance into Egypt. No one knows what happened Misbam’s tribe because they were seen as obscure. Mishma settled into Jamal Mishma. Dumah settled into a region of Arabia. Massa also settled into Arabia. Haddad had also settled into Arabia. The tribe of Jetur was known as thieves and robbers and they also were a nomadic people. Naphish only appears in the Biblical records and no one can accurately claim where they ended up. Kedemah settled in a region of the Middle East once known as Kedomoth.

Biblical References to the Generations of Ishmael

  • Genesis 16:1-7 Abraham has a child with Hagar and Hagar becomes prideful toward Sarah. She is beaten and then runs away but she has to return in order for Ishmael to be blessed.
  •  Genesis 16:8-12 an angel tells Hagar that her son will be against everyone and that everyone will be against him. He also tells Hagar that Ishmael will live close to his kin.
  •  Genesis 17:20 God blesses Ishmael with 12 sons who would become leaders of 12 nations.
    Genesis 21:8-19 Sarah notices Ishmael teasing Isaac and she commands Abraham to get rid of Hagar. He does as she commands. God also confirms Sarah wishes and tells Abraham not to worry because he is going to bless Ishmael with a many descendants. God preserves Hagar and Ishmael in order to fulfill this prophecy.
  •  Genesis 25:12-17 is an outline which shows that God fulfilled his promise to Abraham, Ishmael and Hagar.

References
http://www.icr.org/books/defenders/424/
http://nabataea.net/12tribes.html
http://lavistachurchofchrist.org/LVanswers/2005/03-17.htm
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis%2025:12-17&version=NIV
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Navez_Agar_et_Isma%C3%ABl.jpg

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Jephthah, A Judge in Israel

The time period that God used the judges to lead Israel was instituted by God to test the people of Israel. It was also a time where God wanted to instruct his people how to live and govern their lives according to his purposes. The Israelites often strayed from the Lord during this era and worshipped other Gods. The story of Jephthah is another chapter in the history of Israel where God uses a judge to free his people from the tyranny of a foreign oppressor. He appears on the Biblical Timeline Poster around 1150 BC

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Jeptha,A_Judge_in_Isreal
Jephthah didn’t realize that he would have to sacrifice his daughter.

Jephthah was born of a prostitute from a man named Gilead. This man also had a wife who bore him children. When Gilead’s sons were born and grew up, they separated themselves from Jephthah. They didn’t want Jephthah to claim their father’s inheritance because he was born from an illegitimate union. Jephthah then left his home and had to live in a place called Tob. Once Jephthah was in Tob, he found other men of valour and war who gathered around him. Now Jephthah had a small force, and they apparently were known for their feats of battle and bravery.

Years later the people of Ammon made war against the Israelites, and they didn’t have anyone strong enough to repel them. So the elders went to Jephthah and asked him to defend the nation. Jephthah was angry with them and questioned them about their decision to seek his help after they forced him to leave his home.

Jephthah then told the people of Israel that he would fight for them, and if he were to win the battle, he would be their new leader. Since the people of Ammon were severely oppressing the Israelites, they agreed to his terms. Jephthah was given authority by the elders of Israel to lead the people into battle. After Jephthah was in power, he then sent messengers to the king of Ammon informing him to stop harassing the Israelites. The king of Ammon claimed that the Israelites had stolen their lands from them when they left out of Egypt. Jephthah replied that the Israelites didn’t steal anything from them. The people of Ammon didn’t listen and kept up their campaign against the Israelites.

God sent his spirit over Jephthah who then made a vow to conquer the people of Ammon, and the Lord confirmed this vow. Jephthah then conquered the people of Ammon and became the leader or judge of Israel.

This part of Jephthah’s story is similar to many of the other judges of Israel but where it differs is the vow that Jephthah made to God. Jephthah told God he would give him the first thing that came out of his house to greet him. Jephthah didn’t realize that he would have to sacrifice his daughter.

He realized the foolishness of his vow when his daughter was the first to greet him. Even though he was reluctant about offering his daughter as a sacrifice, he knew that he had to make good on his word. Jephthah sacrificed his daughter and the virgins in the land of Israel to pay homage to her memory by mourning her loss every year. Jephthah also had to fight against the Ephraimites during a later period of his reign. The Ephraimites didn’t help the Israelites against Ammon, and they ended up wanting to fight them instead. After defeating the Ephraimites, Jephthah judged the Israelites for six more years and then passed away.

Biblical References to Jephthah

  • Judges 11:2 Jephthah is thrown out of his home by his brothers.
  • Judges 11:6-7 the people ask Jephthah to lead them into battle against the people of Ammon.
  •  Judges 11:9 Jephthah agrees to their request and becomes the leader of Israel.
  • Judges 11:31 Jephthah vows to sacrifice the first thing that comes out of his house to greet him if God gives him the victory against Ammon.
  • Judges 11: 39 Jephthah makes good on his vow and sacrifices his virgin daughter to God.